The most consequential facet of QDE Theory is that its structures are composed of simplistic foundations. The other important attribute of QDE Theory is that its qualitative awakening to the intellect of quantitative physical explications leading to a new era of scientific interpretation. The string theory or the most novel the M- theory have frustrated the finest theoretical physicists of the world for the simple reason that the two theories lack elementariness to qualify to be considered as a theory of everything. In other words the string theory and the M- theory have both kept away from the first principles thinking that they are unknown. The Quantum Dynamical Evolution Theory of Sanathdeva Murutenge is unique in this respect when compared to other theories formulated and put forward by various scientists including Nobel laureates after excluding historical theories of  bygone era, because it is totally based on first principles popularly known as metaphysics at a theoretical beginning and arriving at a final conclusion by pure deduction.

Until the QDE Theory was published in year 2008, there was no knowable physical mechanism behind gravity. Albert Einstein’s general theory of relativity based on the principle of equivalence with spacetime and gravitation included is depending on Newton’s gravitational constant [G] in which case Newton has not explained its mechanism. Therefore in this context as there is no physical mechanism behind Newton’s gravitational constant, the general theory of relativity of Einstein also has to be considered as a theory without any acceptable mechanism. Since the general theory of relativity is uniformly based on to the output of the interface, the mechanism of this theory is hidden in the input of the interface in which Einstein could not explain in his lifetime. This led to his “failure” in formulating a complete unified field theory and furthermore isolating him from rest of the physicist community at that time. Anyway this task is still an unsolved mystery to mainstream physicists and nobody in the western world has understood yet the mechanism behind gravity.

In this article I do not intent to focus my attention on to comparative review of the dynamical theories of gravitation owing to the fact that such an attempt will unnecessarily lengthen the text and will not lead us to any explicit result. Remember what I told you earlier; nobody in the western world has understood yet the mechanism behind gravity.

In conformity with Newtonian physics gravitation [G] is a constant and is independent of the mass of the body concerned. Now let us see why gravitation is independent of the mass [m] of the body concerned. This is well explicated in QDE Theory. The mass [m] is the quantity of coherent body of matter. The fabric of mass is a singular matrix with trillions of zero determinants. The sum total of trillions of zero determinants situated in this singular matrix is experienced at the center and a third force is generated. The generation of this third force is entirely due to the total force felt from trillions of zero determinants of the singular matrix. The zero determinants are the vacuums of Quaternion atoms with four distinct energy bodies called particles. In particle physics these zero determinants are named as hypothetical quantum’s called gravitons.  The energy bodies cannot be created or destroyed. Therefore They are independent of the compound coherent structure they represent and the force they generate is also not related to it. As I mentioned earlier, mass [m] is the quantity of coherent body of matter having trillions of these energy bodies. This is how the QDE Theory explicates the Newtonian constant of gravitation which was the hallmark of Einstein’s general theory of relativity and also has been proved by experiments of various changes of conditions that it is independent of the nature of the masses. Graviton has individually distinct quantity of energy proportional in magnitude to the frequency of the radiation it represents. In other words it represents a basic cosmic energy unit with four distinct energy bodies, the QDE Theory explicates as the Quaternion atom.

Now the next question is what is meant by the terms mass [m] and matter. In compliance with the depiction of QDE Theory the particles of Quaternion atoms act as dimensionless matrix elements surrounding each of the zero determinants and acquire the property of quantity known as mass [m]. This explains the term matter as the vehicle of energy. Therefore in simple terms mass of a body is the quantity of matter that it contains. The energy conservation of matter is found in zero determinants and possesses by virtue of its array. This is called potential energy of matter and is considered to be zero for the very same reason that it is conserved in zero determinants. What I meant by potential energy is that it constitutes only matter of inanimate nature with no radiation. This is called ground state of the compound nuclear matrix. Therefore as explicated by QDE Theory in its textual narration, the ground state of compound nuclear matrix with no radiation is expounded as matter. This has no vital animating essence.

Now with these brief introductory paragraphs in hand let us see how the QDE Theory fathoms on the mechanism behind gravity.

In accordance with the existing knowledge base of cosmology and astrophysics, there is a strong belief in the scientific community that the four fundamental forces act as unified single manifestation. But no physicist or scientist in the western world has been so far successful in formulating a model that explains the missing gravitational force in the course of a single manifestation mechanism without depending on somebody’s classical arbitrary constant. As I told you earlier, the late mathematical genius Albert Einstein also counted on Newtonian constant of gravitation in formulating his celebrated general theory of relativity.

The QDE Theory speculates in its hypothesis that the big bang is the result of elementary particle shift without any measurable impetus in a non-existent space-time environ involving only energy at a higher scale. It also states that the intrinsic nature of particles that is responsible for this high-energy shift is the definite pattern of particles. The depiction of common geometrical framework for particles is an attainment; the QDE Theory has gain in recent advances of fundamental physics. According to the description of QDE Theory when particles are in their high-energy shift each one of them has the likelihood of getting collided with another particle four times in three hundred and sixty degrees of shift. This explains the formation of Quaternion atomic model of QDE Theory. The Quaternion atomic model has two components viz. vector and scalar. In this context, vector represents the perimeter four dimensionless matrix elements and scalar is a central vacuum space. This is the input of the interface point where the mechanism behind Einstein’s general theory of relativity lies and remains as an unknowable to mainstream physicists to date. I told you earlier that in a compound nuclear matrix this vacuum space acts as a zero determinant and the output of the interface point is the perimeter four dimensionless matrix elements whichis a quantity specified by a magnitude. In other words it is a physical quantity which requires a direction to be stated in order to define it completely. E.g. velocity. In physics this is called as a vector in contrast to scalar which is a quantity specified by a magnitude alone. To multiply a vector by a constant [C] the vector has to be increased in length by this factor C leaving its direction unchanged. Therefore multiplying the vector component by a constant [C] will result a matrix. In QDE Theory this is a singular matrix embedded with scalar components called zero determinants. If we take one unit of this matrix it consists of four perimeter components with one acting as an integer. Therefore in principle there are only three components specified by magnitude. In other words this perimeter vector component can be specified with respect to a given set of Cartesian axes by three components. In accordance with laws of nature any isolated system for its existence should have an interface point. With this interface point this isolated system gets invariably converted in to a coordinate system. A coordinate system should have two reference frames. In this context, the vector and the scalar are the two reference frames. A systematic method of questioning the operation of quantities in this coordinate conversion is done by tensor analysis of mathematical physics. On the other hand the systematic method of questioning the operation of qualities in this coordinate conversion is the subject matter of metaphysics, the branch of speculative philosophy which deals with the ultimate nature of things or ontology, but generally applied more widely to include the theory of knowledge or epistemology, and also inclusive of psychology (See – Murutenge Sanathdeva P.M., Scientific Basis of the Systematic Philosophy of Buddhism: Metaphysical and Metapsychological Analysis of Phenomena of Molecular Consciousness of Theravada Abhidhamma). There are physical quantities which are functions of position in space. The gravitational potential [P] is one of them. It is a hypothetical scalar field created by any mass [m]. A scalar field is a scalar function Ф of position in space. A vector field is a vector function of position in space. In a Quaternion atom the inner derivatives of the scalar field is the result of perimeter components of the outer vector field. In conformity with the commentary of QDE Theory the formation of Quaternion atom is the beginning of the quantum change in particle physics. The Quaternion atom is one coordinate system having a set of quantities called components whose properties are independent of the coordinate system used to describe them and these components are called a tensor. Scalars and vectors are the first two members of this group of quantities called tensors. Scalar is a tensor of rank zero having only magnitude and vector is a tensor of rank one having both magnitude and direction.  In the context of Quaternion coordinate system the perimeter vector[a] is directed towards the central vacuum by way of four components with one as an integer. Therefore the length of perimeter vector [A] can be specified by way of three components in this coordinate system.

The most important incident here is that these Cartesian axes coordinates at a point located in the central vacuum space of the coordinate system and does not produce any further effect. Therefore at this Quaternion stage another quantified extended force is not generated in this vacuum space. It remains as a hypothetical scalar field in this vacuum. Remember what I told you earlier in this article that this scalar field is a derivative of the perimeter vector field created by dimensionless matrix elements contributing to the Quaternion atomic mass (m). Therefore it is a physical quantity which is a function of position in space and can be considered as coming into action latently (potential). In QDE Theory the Quaternion atom is the fundamental unit of the compound nuclear matrix and acts as a “graviton” thus the scalar field generated in the vacuum component of coordinate system can be considered as “graviton potential”; more accurately the “gravitational potential”. This is how the QDE Theory explicates the physical mechanism behind gravitational potential (P) in its commentary.

Now the next question is how this gravitational potential leap onto an impetus of awareness which is to date is an unsolved mystery. In fundamental physics this is considered as the force of gravity. There is a strong innovation among the theoretical physicists that the string theory might confirm this unification after the second coming of the LHC in Geneva. But string theory has many problems and is discredited by a number of leading physicists and commentators. Therefore until the string theory is proven to be the final theory of everything, we have a good alternative theory in Sri Lanka called QDE Theory which is not yet well-received by the western world due to a doctrinal conflict of commitment and its own native Sri Lanka  due to envy of local university academia.

It is very clearly shown in QDE Theory that the gravitational potential (P) increases with a gradient of matrix addition. Therefore in a compound nuclear matrix the point where the Cartesian axes of perimeter vector field coordinate will gradually shift from a vacuum space to another location of no vacuous state. This is called the divergence of perimeter vector field and always thought to be curved or spiral inwards (curl). This latter expression is an abbreviation for the expanded form of compound perimeter vector field. In this situation unlike in the earlier instance, there is a potentiality of generating an extended force by way of a scalar field on other side of the interface hidden in the unknowable part of the coordinate system. This is the very same reason that this force has no measurable quantity thus exhibiting only an impetus of awareness by way of magnitude. This force is fundamental to any compound conformation of universe and is called the force of gravity. This also explains why the gravity is weakest of the four fundamental forces of universe. This is how the QDE Theory explicates in simplicity the physical mechanism behind gravity in its commentary.

The other three fundamental forces of universe viz. the weak force, strong force and the electromagnetic force have been expounded in many partial theories and so far not extended to the deepest end of unified state. The most unsavoury aspect of all these partial theories is that they do not elucidate the unified single manifestation, the certification a grand unified theory [GUT] should hold. Many booming attempts have been made to unify the already unfolded three forces of universe with no favourable result with gravity. Now with this background existing knowledge base in hand let us see how the QDE Theory going to explain the four fundamental forces as different aspects of a single force to get the certification of grand unified theory.

In QDE Theory the high-energy particle shift or the big bang via the asymmetric trinity of the holy mass and finally the supersymmetry God particle described in this theory as Garson which means gaseous in nature completing the symmetry of Quaternion atom is a sequence of events expounded on first principles and no physicist in the western world will go against my theoretical argument in this context. This composite formation gives rise to bipolar effect of four quarks in Quaternion atom and become hadronic i.e. they strongly interact. The quarks with hadronic effect are hadrons. The hadronic effect bound the four hadrons strongly in contiguity with each other. The bipolar effect is the derivation of a charge, an attribute consequential of hadronic effect and exists as positive and negative forms. This is the beginning of electrical phenomena, an origin of a current. The current is originated in composite hadronic structure and can be called as hadron current. The trapped high-energy in the central vacuum does not permit any charge of the hadron current to permeate in tothis space. The only available pathway is the perimeter four quarks of Quaternion atom strongly in contiguity with each other. The bipolar effect gets neutralized at four adjacent points to initiate a flow of current within these perimeter quarks. The new redistribution of positive and negative forms of hadron current will weaken the hadronic effect of Quaternion atom. The absence of bipolar effect will further weaken the hadronic effect. At one point of this weakening of hadronic effect the four perimeter hadrons tends to move apart. This is called spontaneous symmetry breaking of subatomic particles where Yoichiro Nambu of USA for the discovery of this mechanism and Makoto Kobayashi and Toshihide Maskawa of Japan for the discovery of this origin won the Nobel Physics Prize in year 2008. The resultant redistribution of positive and negative forms by the flow of hadron current in four independent quarks gives the bipolar effect to spinning quarks. The bipolar effect of four quarks facilitates the hadronic effect and in the process of this electrical phenomenon, the energy is transformed back to mass. At the moment of hadrons moving apart, the interacting forces of quarks are weak. In the same way when they are about to get contiguous the interacting forces become strong. This explicates the weak and strong forces of universe which are short lived. The hadronic effect is described as the electromagnetic force in QDE Theory and is unified with the two interacting forces   (See – Murutenge, Sanathdeva, P.M., Quantum Dynamical Evolution Theory: A Paradigm Shift to Theories of Modern Physics, The Theory of Everything, pp.1-23).  The term quark implies because of this fractional electric charge they exhibit in this milieu. There is no space-time curve involved in this dynamical move of quarks and the quarks continually approaches a given curve but does not meet it at a finite distance. This behavior of quarks is called asymptotic freedom of quarks where David Gross, David Politzer and Frank Wilczek were awarded the Nobel Physics Prize in year 2004 for its invention.

Now everything is crystal clear to every one of us who are keen on explaining this greatest quest of unifying scheme. The QDE Theory has won this central challenge of theoretical physics by explaining the four fundamental forces on a unified single manifestation in its commentary. I have done my part by formulating the theory as a qualitative assay. The rest is up to the international physicist’s community to decide on whether I have contributed anything to the greatest quest of all science.


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  2. Murutenge, Sanathdeva P.M., Scientific Basis of the Systematic Philosophy of Buddhism: Metaphysical and Metapsychological Analysis of Phenomena of Molecular Consciousness of Theravada Abhidhamma, Author Publication, Dehiwala, Sri Lanka, 2006, ISBN 955-97940-1-9
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