The physics of fundamentality has become an expeditiously unfolding science at the forefront of an investigation into the edifice of the universe. Endeavour’s to pervade profoundly into the quintessence of things and accomplish the advanced state of enlightenment is always associated with the dissolution of earlier notions and unfolding of new ideas. In the process of remodeling the inception of the universe for the purpose of achieving objective realities was always confronted with physical and metaphysical complications in formulating theories. The advancement of fundamental research in the West has thrived with the help of physical entities alone and established as quantitative speculative thought. Today what we study as astrophysics, cosmological physics, and theoretical physics all come under this category of thought. The east block never thought of going beyond metaphysical speculations in this regard and was tied down to religious convictions alone. Although the concept of the mighty creator was dominating the western world, it did not influence them much in there scientific development and, as a result, the concept of cosmic religion emerged in this region of the world. Though the atomism was the fundamental doctrine of the Orthodox Eastern thought due to its obscurity, it did not attract the notice they deserved until such time the late scientific genius Albert Einstein mentioned it after his failure in the attempt of formulating a theory of everything. At this stage, it is very important to mention that this sectarian thought of Eastern origin has many linkages to Greek philosophy of being and knowing. The philosophers like Plato and Aristotle gave a lot of thought to physics or philosophy of nature. The German philosopher by the name Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz gave thought to atomism. Advanced philosophical systems have consistently guided the advancement of natural science with new atomistic views in its most profound form. But the dilemma in physics is the inability of understanding dialectics by scientists. The dialectics of our philosophical system very clearly unveil that the nature is asymptotic in dynamism. The Quantum Dynamical Evolution Theory of Sanathdeva Murutenge incontrovertibly explicates this behavior of nature in its thesis. In Sri Lanka though we have been gifted with such an advanced philosophical systematization, due to the prevailing unmonitored academic bureaucracy we have not been able to achieve anything and the day the nation has to pay the price for this is not very far. This is the ongoing situation of research in the Island. But in the west this situation is quite different. All these speculative thinking culminated to the higher scale systematic investigation of universal phenomena in the west and the east with poverty, religious and political devastation went down with the dark abyss of time. But the West recognized the unrevealed insight of the east and even today the scientists of various disciplines come to the Asian subcontinent in search of this scholarship. In Sri Lanka, the appraise of such knowledge emerging out of the academic circle is silenced and overlooked due to envies of university academia. On account of this detrimental frame of mind of academia, Sri Lanka has suffered lot in scientific development in recent times. India has gone far ahead of us in fundamental research technology and has been accorded with observer status to the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN). The exploration of the universe by way of laboratory experiments was the normal investigative methodology in the past until the CERN came into operation in the year 2008.
The systematic investigation of phenomena during passage of electricity through a tube containing a gas at low pressure by using a cathode led to the discovery of streams of negative corpuscles having high velocity in the electric field flying away from negatively charged conductor. These experiments were carried out by J.J. Thomson and others in 1897. The present day universally term; the electron was coined by Johnston Stoney. The discovery of the electron by J.J. Thomson won him the Nobel Physics Prize in 1906 and two years later received his knighthood. In the western world, the electron is accepted as the first subatomic particle discovered. Therefore what is important here is that the late Mr. Thomson won the prestigious Nobel Physics Prize in the year 1906 for the discovery of electron as a subatomic particle in which I am going to bestow counterarguments against this defines in the course of this research paper. This invention of J.J. Thomson led to the laying of the first foundation stone of instituting a serial archetypal of an atom. I do not intend to elaborate further on the historical milieu of the electron because of its miniature participation to this symposium. Therefore let me conclude this paragraph at this stage and take you back to the main theme of this research paper.
I am quite optimistic now that the Quantum Dynamical Evolution Theory of Sanathdeva Murutenge abbreviated QDE Theory is no more a strange theory to the western world because it has taken almost all the challenges of fundamental physics with its Quaternion model and become the victor against its contender the standard model of gauge theory. The standard model of gauge theory is not an accomplished theory due to the fact that it does not explain gravitation, dark matter or dark energy. The QDE Theory has included all the above explanations in its model and the most recent achievement was the decoding of physical mechanism behind gravity on a single manifestation of unifying scheme (see – Quantum Dynamical Evolution Theory and the Physical Mechanism Behind Gravity ……., the article published in this website on 10th September 2009). The Quaternion atomic model of QDE Theory has gone far ahead of the standard model introduced in early nineteen seventies by many ways viz. Describing the super symmetry particle, incorporating the missing gravitational force into its model, treating all the four fundamental forces as unified single manifestation, not depending on arbitrary constants, explaining subatomic particles and finally the most important facet, the simplicity. Therefore unlike its fellow contestants in the forum of Grand Unified Theories, the QDE Theory has scored more points in recent times.
Now the next question is how we are going to define the fundamental particles in conformity with QDE Theory and by doing so to what extent it is going to contradict the idealistic knowledge base of particle physics in contemporary convention. As I told you earlier that western and eastern particle physicists reckon with the global acceptance of electron of fermions group as a particle. The basic principle behind this classification of particles in gauge theory is the concept of charge independence. In substance, the standard model does not exhibit a model as such but only a mere classification chart. On account of experimental discoveries, innovations are made in this chart, and this keep on escalating day by day. While the chart escalates in this way, the western theorists are working hard on a theory that will accommodate every single element of the chart into its model and at the same time trying to comprise the missing force of gravitation.
In particle physics, the bosons are considered as particles which abide by Bose-Einstein statistics and fermions as particles which conform to Fermi-Dirac statistics. The boson is yet to be borne at CERN while his father Professor Peter Higgs impatiently waiting to see his dreamy child. The electron theory of atomic model incontrovertibly elucidates the electron as a subatomic particle found in the perimeter of its nucleus. The logos of the Department of Atomic Energy in the USA and the Atomic Energy Authority of Sri Lanka are the best examples of authenticity to the affirmation of electron as a particle in the west and in the east.
Before going into the deeper aspects of the theme of this paper, I may like to harness the reader’s attention to one important keyword of this thesis. Without this keyword, there won’t be any content to be explicated in this paper. Therefore, the understanding of statistics of particle physics or the quantum statistical mechanics is very essential at this stage. The energy is essentially the random motion of particles. This I have explained in QDE Theory. Therefore by definition the subject that deals with energy regarding some symmetry model is called quantum statistical mechanics. According to this definition, the application of quantum statistical mechanics into standard model is highly debatable owing to the fact that it does not elicit a symmetry model. The formation of Quaternion atomic model of QDE Theory is the starting point of this quantum statistical mechanics of particle physics. Now with this definition of relationship of statistics to particle physics let me go into few more burning dilemmas of this treatise.
The Bose-Einstein and the Fermi-Dirac statistics are based on charge-independence. What I mean by charge-independence is that the experimental findings of the independent operation of the principle of symmetry between particles of the model in terms of interactions, the both charge and parity are conserved. Out of the four pioneer workers of this statistical mechanics of symmetry models of particle physics Einstein, Fermi and Dirac won the Nobel Physics Prize. It is always the case that the committees who decides on giving awards sometimes overlook few of really deserving cases but in reality the works of such overlooked people are always far beyond of prizes and awards. May be the real problem lies with the east-west statistical conflict in gaining points to be qualified for such an award. Now let me go back again to the topic on debate.
Why the difference in statistics between fermions and bosons are well explicated in the Quaternion model of QDE Theory. What is explicated as fermions in the standard model are exclusively included into three groups in QDE Theory as particles which exhibit three different values in their asymptotic freedom? On the other hand, the bosons of the standard model are included as a unique particle called gasron in QDE Theory which has no value in its asymptotic freedom. Gasron also called as Higgs Boson in standard model is the super-symmetry particle of the asymmetric Trinity of the Holy Mass in QDE Theory. Therefore, the difference in statistics between fermions and bosons is the result of one having and the other not having the asymptotic freedom in their quantum mechanics. This also explains the relationship between spin quantum numbers and statistics of particle physics. The West failed to give this elementary explanation to date. Professor Wolfgang Pauli in 1925 worked out this explanation on the basis of quantum field theory and theory of relativity giving enigmatic arguments, but that did not worked on elementary level. On account of this; out of the four particles in Quaternion atomic model of QDE Theory only three are exhibiting the phenomenon of asymptotic freedom during the spontaneous symmetry breaking of subatomic particles (see – ibid. the article published in this website on 10th September 2009).
Now let me go back again to Pauli’s argument on fermions where he was accorded with Nobel Physics Prize in 1945. It is called, “the exclusion principle.” In documentation, this is explicated as “it is impossible for two electrons in an atom to be identical in all four quantum numbers namely the total quantum number n, orbital quantum number l, spin quantum number s and the total angular quantum numberj“. Although this statement is theoretically as well as empirically true no physicist in the west has so far given an explanation of elementariness in this regard. This principle of Pauli exclusively supports the western physicists’ exposition of the presence of particles viz. Electron, proton and neutron as constituents of matter. In QDE Theory though the Pauli’s exclusion principle is taken in a different way it does not support the electron and proton as particles. Furthermore, it recognizes the neutron as the energy of the magnetic moment in the process of spontaneous symmetry breaking of Quaternion atomic model. Therefore according to QDE Theory the neutron is not a particle. The QDE Theory complies with Pauli’s exclusion principle by a simple recitation as “at one given moment the two negative forms of electrical phenomena do not exhibit same characteristics due to one reason i.e. they belong to two different quarks“. The term quark implies because of this fractional electric charge they exhibit in this spontaneous symmetry breaking and asymptotic freedom. This is a significance incongruity of the two theories because the standard model of gauge theory explicates quarks as a distinct group in the fermions pack. In QDE Theory, the hadron current flow in the Quaternion model induces asymptotic freedom by spontaneous symmetry breaking of its constituents. This takes place in a very high speed which can only be considered equivalent to double the velocity of light (E = mc2 Einstein’s equation). The process of spontaneous symmetry breaking in asymptotic freedom of quarks takes effect at this speed. There can be trillions of moments within this process. Therefore, one can imagine in years to come how many subatomic particles may be discovered at CERN and other particle accelerators in the west. During this process, the positive and negative forms causing the electrical phenomena between quarks fluctuate and if computationally taken in to account we get different gauges. This is the reason the gauge theory having more particles than the QDE Theory. At each fractional moment, the concentration of electrical phenomena in each quark is different. In this way, the standard model chart will go on expanding. But it is very important to comment at this stage that this additional impact will be more on fermions group. Due to the gaseous nature it is sometimes very difficult to gauge its concentration charge. This is the reason bosons are a fever in number. The final pace of this process is the energy of magnetic moment of quarks where the QDE Theory defines as neutrons. Therefore in the west though the Pauli’s exclusion principle is well observed its explanation on the elementary level is not set out in detail. The QDE Theory is the only theory that expounds this phenomenon. Now it is very clear to the reader why the standard model has become a gauge theory of electro weak and strong interactions with the gauge groups SU(3) X SU(2) X U(1) and described three generations of particle packs viz. Quarks, leptons, and bosons.
In conformity with QDE Theory all are quarks of four generations viz. Earthron, glueron, heatron and gasron with bipolar, hadronic and magnetic moment effects. All the above mentioned four generations are associated with matter. Gasron with an integer spin acts as a landing base for other three energy bodies hence called the force carrier particle. This distinction is explained for the first time in quantum physics. The corresponding antimatter is always an electric charge fluctuating as vacuum energy and can be described by four words viz. Eartharon, gluearon, heataron and gasaron. The antimatter helps to consolidate the system of Quaternion model on a permanent basis. The underlying principle governing the terminology of particles and antiparticles in QDE Theory is explicated in page 32 (see – QDE Theory in this website).
The following inferences of the west on particle physics are theoretically established in QDE Theory.
Notwithstanding the fact that the QDE Theory does not support the standard model chart of particle physics to the fullest extent it does agrees with the fact that the fermions group exhibit intrinsic angular momentum. It also agrees that the fermions are anti-symmetric in quantum field theory by the description of asymmetric trinity of the holy mass. Finally, the QDE Theory complies with the Western conclusion of particles with integer spin having a symmetric wave function as bosons by its super-symmetry particle gasron.
Now with this background knowledge in hand let me answer the following unsolved problems in particle physics.
1. What gives rise to the standard model of particle physics? – It will lead all the particle physicists into perplexity.
2. Why do particle mass and coupling constants have the values we measure? – The constituent particles of Quaternion atomic model act as dimensionless matrix elements surrounding a zero determinant and acquire the property of quantity called mass. This explains the term matter as the vehicle of energy. In other words, the perimeter vector field created by dimensionless matrix elements contributes to the Quaternion atomic mass. The electrical phenomenon within this Quaternion model contributes to the consolidation of the system on permanent basis and remains as a hypothetical scalar field in a central vacuum. In the process of asymptotic dynamism when computationally measured we get values as coupling constants.
3. Does the Higgs Boson exist? – According to QDE Theory, it does exist as gasron with a symmetric wave function and acts as a force carrier particle.
4. Why there are three generations of particles? – There is no solid foundation of the standard model in describing three generations of particles. According to Quaternion model of QDE Theory, there are four generations of particles starting from earthron and ending with gasron. The reason for the subsequent list of the standard model of gauge theory is well explained in this research paper.
Now it is quite clear to every one of us that the Quaternion model of QDE Theory is consistent with the emerging standard model of cosmology. I hope the international physicists community may give thought to my well-grounded arguments in this paper to a marked degree so that the scholarship of this field of study will advance to a higher plane.
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