This is a new theory I formulated in the field of theoretical physics in order to explain the hidden dimensions of the universe. The paper starts with the explanations of particle physics of the theory which were not discussed before when the theory of impermanence was taken as a basis for reasoning in the main text of the thesis. The impermanence is an intrinsic degree of excellence of the basic cosmic energy unit of the cosmic matrix.^{1} There are two Cosmo dynamics involved in this degree of excellence of each of the four elementary particles of this cosmic energy unit viz. the force of high energy rotation and the force of high energy resistance. These four elementary particles are the future substrate elements of the cosmos which are present in great numbers.^{2} The future substrate elements mean they are responsible in making the basic cosmic energy unit of the cosmos. This is what I described in the text of the thesis as the formation of Quaternion.^{3 }Once this subtle inanimate objective formation is evolved as a result of its elemental dynamics a third force is generated. This is the high energy restraining force acting towards the center of the Quaternion from each of the four elementary particles. Therefore once this independent basic cosmic energy unit is spontaneously evolved in the cosmos there are altogether three dynamical forces acting on it.

Before going into further details of the evolution of this quadrifid unit of the cosmos I would like to describe some consequential quality of the cosmic elementary particles. This fundamental knowledge is very essential because it is the catalyst of this whole phenomenal network.

The cosmic elementary particles are four in number viz. earth, water, fire and gas. They are innate to the cosmos and neutral in nature. This neutrality of the cosmic particles shifts from one point to another point in haphazard motion. While shifting from one point to another point these particles collide with each other in the cosmic space. Here the whole universe acts as a colossal accelerator.^{4} Therefore this high energy shift of the elementary particles in the universal accelerator is the sole catalyst of the origin of the phenomenal world.

The other important point is in this high energy shift of the particles there is no relativity involvement. The relativity to be involved in a motion there has to be a constant velocity of the moving object with space-time as a four-dimensional continuum. When there is no object to be measured as a product of its mass and velocity there is no quantity of motion or momentum. When there is no momentum the force becomes non-existent. The other factor which we all have to remember is that there are no vectors i.e. any quantity having a direction as well as a magnitude is not involved in this high energy particle shift. The only involvement here is the high energy shift due to neutrality of the particles. The high energy is the only component found here. This energy is in the cosmic accelerator and is responsible for the evolution of the basic cosmic energy unit i.e. the quaternion and hence the theory is named as the *‘Quantum Dynamical Evolution Theory of Sanathdeva Murutenge’*. Therefore from the above explanations it is quite evident that the theory does not get involved in mathematical quantities at its beginning. When there is no implication of mathematical quantities, the fundamental constants are non-existent. This is one of the major differences found in *Quantum Dynamical Evolution Theory* when comparable with Quantum and Relativity theories.^{5 }

Before going into further details of dynamisms of this article I would like to harness the reader’s attention back on to the high energy shift of elementary particles of the cosmos. I have already mentioned that there is no measurable impetus to shift a particular particle. The other important point is the non-existent of space-time.^{6} Therefore what exists here should be intrinsic to all four elementary particles. This intrinsic nature of particles which is responsible for this high energy shift is nothing but the definite pattern^{7} of the particle. The definite pattern of the particle exerts a spontaneous spin about an axis like a top.^{8} The particle spin about an axis like a top exerts a particle shift in a non-existent space-time environment evolving only energy on a higher scale. This is what I call the high energy shift of elementary particles. The particle spin is illustrated in the following line diagram as Fig.1.

**Fig.1 Particle spin about an axis like a top **

The non-existence of vectors in the high energy particle shift is highlighted in the following line diagram as Fig. 2.

**Fig. 2 High energy particle shift showing non-existent of vectors**

The high energy particle shift in the absence of vectors as illustrated in the above line diagram one can carefully observe that the spin follows a circular path in the cosmos. At the end of three hundred and sixty degrees of shift the particle looks the same to the observer in its symmetry giving the same pattern as if nothing has happened. The apprehension of dimensional continuums are lacking here. The non-existent of space-time is the result of an arbitrary shift of energy in the absence of other domains of physics. The non-existent of space-time is illustrated in the following line diagram as Fig. 3.

**Fig. 3 The non-existent of space-time in high energy particle shift**

The above illustration clearly exhibit that the view of the observer in the range of three hundred and sixty degrees of shift will show the same pattern of the particle. This is due to the non-existent of space-time in high energy particle shift.

The next important point to be discussed is at what positions of equalities the collision of elementary particles takes place. Let us again harness our attention to the line diagram of Appendix 5 Fig. 3. When you look at it from above there are four quadrants in the path of high energy particle shift. Each point in the four quadrants of high energy shift is a collision point with another particle. Therefore when a particle is in its high energy shift it has the likelihood of getting collided with another particle four times in three hundred and sixty degrees of shift.^{9} The four collision points of the particle in its high energy shift are illustrated in the following line diagram as Fig. 4.

**Fig. 4 the four collision points of the particle in high energy shift**

In the range of three hundred and sixty degrees of high energy shift, a particle collides four times with another four particles of the cosmos. This explains the formation of Quaternion in the cosmic matrix. The fully formed Quaternion is illustrated in the following line diagram as Fig. 5.

**Fig. 5 Formation of Quaternion due to collision at 360 Degrees of high energy particle shift**

The English alphabetic symbols W, X, Y and Z are the real numbers of the Quaternion that represent the four elemental particles viz. Earth, Water, Fire and Gas. They are the substrate elements of the cosmic matrix which are present in great numbers. The central hollow is formed because of the pattern of particles which I mentioned earlier in this paper. Now the Quaternion can be named as the basic cosmic energy unit of the cosmic matrix because it contains four particles which were earlier devoid of all the domains of physics other than energy. This is the basic subtle spiritless object formed in the whole of cosmos and is vacuous in nature. Because the central hollow is the final result of four particles coming together in a high energy collision it is devoid of any matter or mass. In reality it is a vacuum. It has four imaginary units or compartments which satisfy certain conditions of the basic cosmic energy unit when compound status is gained due to mathematical proportions. They are non-existent units of the Quaternion denoted in English alphabetic symbols viz. h, i, j and k. They have the capability of generating some sort of formations in certain conditions. The phenomenal details of these have been discussed in the main text of the thesis (See text).^{10 }

By careful perusal of the above diagram it is quite evident that the formation of Quaternion in the cosmos is the beginning of the quantum change in particle physics. The cosmic particles which were in a state of high energy shift begin to exert some force within the Quaternion making the four substrate elements to bind firmly to each other as one unit. This is what I call as the forces of restraint. Because of these forces of restraint the high energy of particle shift is trapped inside this Quaternion. The reason why I named the Quaternion as the ‘Basic Cosmic Energy Unit’^{11} in the main text of the thesis is well understood now. The forces of restraint of the Quaternion are illustrated in the following line diagram as Fig. 6.

**Fig. 6 Forces of restraint of the Quaternion. FR stands for Force of Restraint. **

The high energy particle shift is trapped inside the central vacuum of Quaternion. This is the nuclear energy of Quaternion. When you carefully look at the above line diagram it is quite clear to everyone that the four forces of restraint are directed towards the central vacuum of Quaternion increasing the intensity of force by four times. But this higher intensity of total restraint force has no value here because in a vacuum state it does not

produce any other effect.^{12 }Therefore at this Quaternion stage a third force is not generated at the central vacuum point.

At the beginning of this paper I gave special prominence to two forces of Quaternion which are directly linked to the phenomenon of impermanence viz. high energy rotation and high energy resistance. The two forces are generated as a result of this transient nature of Quaternion. Let me explain to you how this transient nature came into operation in the Quaternion. To understand this universal phenomenon it is of utmost importance to know the basic structure of Quaternion.

The symmetry of Quaternion is due to its quark pattern.^{13} The central hollow is surrounded by four particles. This composite formation gives rise to bipolar effect in all four particles of Quaternion. Because of this bipolar affect the particles become hadronic i.e. they strongly interact. The particles with hadronic effect can be called as hadrons.^{14} The bipolar and hadronic effects of Quaternion are well illustrated in the following line diagram as Fig. 7.

**Fig. 7 The bipolar and hadronic effects of Quaternion. **

The hadronic effect keeps the four hadrons strongly in contact with each other. The bipolar effect is the origin of a charge, a property that is a consequence of hadronic effect and exists as positive and negative forms. Therefore the bipolar and the hadronic effects of Quaternion is the beginning of electrical phenomena i.e. an origin of a current. Because the current is originated in the composite hadronic structure of Quaternion it is called hadrons current.^{15} At the moment of origin of hadrons current in Quaternion the central vacuum is already filled with high energy of particle shift. This is an important point to note in order to understand further energetic phenomena of Quaternion. The trapped high energy inside the central vacuum does not allow any radiation of hadrons current into this space. The only possible pathway of hadrons current is the path created by four hadrons strongly in contiguity with each other. The positive and negative forms of bipolar effect get neutralized at contact poles of two adjacent hadrons to facilitate the flow of current within the hadronic structure as illustrated in the following line diagram as Fig. 8.

**Fig. 8 The flow of hadron current. **

The new redistribution of positive and negative forms of hadrons current as shown in position B of above line diagram will weaken the hadronic effect of Quaternion. The bipolar effect is also not in force here resulting in further weakening of hadronic effect. At a critical point of this weakening of hadronic effect the four hadrons tend to move apart from each other. There is no space-time involved in this dynamical move because of the immediate reactivation of high energy particle shifts in each of the separated particles of Quaternion. There is radiation trapped high energy into the cosmos in this process of particle separation. The weakening of hadronic effect and the resultant radiation of high energy is illustrated in the following line diagram as Fig. 9.

**Fig. 9 the weakening of hadronic effect (WHE) and the radiation of nuclear energy (RNE) **

The radiating nuclear energy of the high energy particle shift which was trapped earlier in the central vacuum space gets converted into motive power.^{16} The motive power acts at four different points of Quaternion to increase its power of rotation by four times. The high energy rotation is a force fueled by radiating nuclear energy of Quaternion. At this stage of Quaternion it has energy of particle shift coupled with force of high rotation. The high energy shift is intrinsic to particles and the high rotation is intrinsic to basic composite structure of particles i.e. the Quaternion at its mass destruction. The energy coupled with force gives the Quaternion a momentum but the physical quantity of this motion cannot be measured due to the non-existent of vector quantity (see the description given earlier in this paper). In reality this momentum is an angular force called torque. The torque is the rate of change of Quaternion and can be called as the angular momentum of Quaternion. By definition the angular momentum is a vector.^{17} Therefore it should have a mathematical quantity. The mathematical quantity or the magnitude of the angular momentum can be given by *mvr* where *m *is the mass, *v* is the velocity and *r *is the radius of the orbit in which the Quaternion is moving. The mass (*m*) is the quantity of coherent body of matter; the Quaternion contains.^{18} If this has to be measured there should be a third force^{19} acting as a result of restraint forces (FR) of the aggregate body of Quaternion. The central vacuum state of Quaternion does not permit to establish this third force (see Appendix 5 Fig. 6). Because of the non-extent of the third force of Quaternion its mass (*m*) cannot be found as a definite fact. In the absence of vector quantity the velocity (*v*) cannot be argued in terms of classical physicalism. In a situation where the mass and the velocity of Quaternion are non-existent, a point as an indication of its position cannot be found in space. Therefore a continuous mark cannot be drawn from a fixed point to this non-existent orbit. In terms of classical physics the radius (*r*) vector is absent here. Therefore in the context of Quaternion at its mass destruction the rate of high energy rotation cannot be given in mathematical quantity. The calculated intensity of this rotation i.e. by multiplying the mass and acceleration or the force (F) takes place in a velocity which is equivalent only to double the velocity of light (*c*^{2}).

Force of high energy rotation at mass destruction (F) = *mc*^{2 }

But at this speed of rotation a mass (*m*) cannot exist. The force gets transformed in to energy (E). This can be expressed in the following equation as,^{20}

E = *mc*^{2 }

The transformed energy (E) is the high energy shift of four elementary particles of Quaternion. The Quaternion has exploded into four quarks. The four particles released from the Quaternion at its mass destruction start spinning in the cosmos as independent quarks. The resultant redistribution of positive and negative forms by the flow of hadron current in four independent quarks gives the bipolar effect to spinning particles. The bipolar effect of four particles facilitates the hadronic effect. In the process of this electrical phenomenon taking place, the energy is transformed back to its mass. The transformation of energy into mass takes place in a velocity which is equivalent only to double the velocity of light (c^{2}). The change of energy into mass and vice versa is a continuous process taking place in the Quaternion.^{21} This is why I said at the beginning of this paper that the impermanence is an intrinsic degree of excellence of the basic cosmic energy unit. The very deep doctrinal context of Buddhist psychology^{22 }is totally based on this fundamental quantum phenomenology of particle physics. This was taken as a supposition in my thesis for further investigation of perennial problems of Buddhist psychology which were left unsolicited by Sri Lankan scholars of Buddhist studies to date due to the fact that these problems carry weight not only on Buddhist studies but other disciplines of studies as well before coming in to conclusions.^{23 }

The above changeover can be called as *kinetic reversibility of Quaternion* and is illustrated in the following line diagram as Fig. 10.

**Fig. 10 Kinetic reversibility of Quaternion**

What I meant by ‘kinetic’ here is the kinetic energy (KE) of Quaternion. It is the energy Quaternion possesses by virtue of being in motion according to Newtonian physics. It is a property the basic cosmic energy unit has when it is rotating with velocity *v *(KE) = Half of *mv*^{2}. According to this equation kinetic energy is half the product of mass with the square of the velocity (see derivation of kinetic energy in bibliographical and descriptive notes).^{24 }When the velocity increases the energy increases simultaneously. If we postulate that the above phenomenon of Quaternion takes place in a velocity with respect to a subject he feels that its mass increases and there is a direct relation between mass and kinetic energy. This relation can be shown in the following equation as,

KE = *m’c** ^{2}* –

*mc*

^{2}= (*m’ – m*)* c*^{2}

Where KE is the kinetic energy, *m* is the mass of Quaternion at rest, *m’* is the mass of Quaternion at rotation, and *c *is the velocity of light. The argument of this relation is beyond the mathematical physics of this thesis.^{25} Those readers who have the knowledge of calculus can work out this relation. For Newtonian physics of kinetic energy this equation can be written as,

Half of *mv** ^{2}* = (

*m’ – m*)

*c*

^{2}This is the case when velocity (*v*) is smaller than the velocity of light (*c*). Without parentheses this can be expressed as,

Half of *mc** ^{2}*=

*m’c*

^{2}*– mc*

^{2 }This is the kinetic energy of Quaternion due to rotation. According to Einstein each term represents energy (E). Einstein explicates this as E’ = *m’c** ^{2}* to the total energy of mass in motion in relation to a subject as an observer and E =

*mc*

*to the rest energy of mass when it is not in motion. The energy difference of the two states of mass is the kinetic energy of (*

^{2}*m’ – m*)

*c*

*. The energy equate with mass can be expressed as,*

^{2}E = *mc*^{2}

What Einstein observed from the above equation is that a minute quantity of mass can carry a large amount of energy as its inherent quality and vice versa. It is the mass energy (*mc*^{2}*)*. Newtonian potential energy concept has no place here. Here the velocity of light is independent to the motion of the subject and to the mass. Either frame is not at its absolute rest. This is the theory of Einstein which came out in year 1905 as the *special theory of relativity*.^{26 }

From the above discussion it is quite clear to the reader that the *Quantum Dynamical Evolution theory *hastaken a new paradigm shift to come to the same conclusion Einstein had from his *special theory of relativity* in 1905.

Now the left over force which is not discussed yet is force of high energy resistance (FHER). The resistance is due to collision with other similar Quaternions in the cosmos. The result is a matrix^{27} formation in the cosmic space. There is no fixed value to this matrix formation. It has only an algebraic entity. The basic formation of Quaternion is not a matrix because it has a determinant^{28} i.e. quantity value obtained by addition of four elemental particles. The reason for not considering the basic cosmic energy unit as a matrix is because it is the least portion of a thing or quality (atom). The force of matrix formation is the high energy resistance of Quaternion. The matrix multiplication^{29} leads to the formation of trillions of animate and inanimate objects in the universe. The complex formation of human seat of awareness is a good example for a square matrix^{30}. The quantum phenomenology of human awareness is described in detail in the main text of the thesis (see text).^{31 }

The forces of square matrix formation of Quaternion are illustrated in the following line diagram as Fig.11.

**Fig.11 The forces of square matrix formation of Quaternion.**

**R = Force of high energy resistance, RNE = Radiation of nuclear energy.**

Once the square matrix is formed as a complex formation of the human seat of awareness another matrix can be added to this. This is called matrix addition.^{32} The prerequisite condition for this to happen is both matrices should have the same order. When they are of the same order it is called equality of matrices.^{33} The compound universal energy unit or the human machine is a good example to describe this quantum mechanical phenomenon. In systematic philosophy of Buddhism this is described as Name and Form (*Nama-Rupa*). The perfect amalgamation of two matrices i.e. mind and body coming together in the natural evolvement of name and form according to the above quantum mechanical operation facilitates the transmission of electro-magnetic waves from mind to body via a distribution point in order to perform volitional activities. In the main text of the thesis I have described this distribution point as the ‘intellectual entrepot’ of corporal body.^{34} The square matrix of human seat of awareness is well illustrated in the following line diagram as Fig.12.

x w x w x w x w

y z y z y z y z

x w x w x w x w

**Fig.12 the square matrix of human seat of awareness**

Now let us harness our attention to the above illustrated square matrix of human seat of awareness. By giving a more comprehensive meaning to consciousness, the term used in the thesis will be more palatable to the reader. When you consider the human consciousness in terms of quantum mathematics it is a square matrix. It has only an algebraic entity without a value. But the determining factor of the square matrix has a definite value. In quantum mathematics this is explained as the determinant of a matrix. The four English alphabetical letters (w, x, y, z) of the matrix represents one unit and is called the Quaternion. It only represents energy. Therefore the determinant of the square matrix of human consciousness is zero. When the determinant is zero, the matrix is named as a singular matrix.^{35} This quantum mathematical argument proves that the human consciousness is a singular matrix with a function of infinite value and infinitely dense matter as at the centre of a black hole^{36 }(space element). This again proves my argument on the basic elemental structure of Quaternion discussed at the beginning of this paper and also in the main text of the thesis.

In the main text of the thesis I discussed the central area created by four particles of Quaternion as a vacuum. This is the nucleus of determinant of the human consciousness which is the area of location of nuclear energy. The five fold thought process to take place as described in systematic philosophy of Buddhism, a creation of vacuum in this central area is a prerequisite. Now let me explain to you how the vacuum is created in the determinant of human consciousness to facilitate the influx of objective impulses to establish the five fold thought process. The sensitive corporeality of external sense organs of the human body is also a determinant of zero value. This explains the human corporality as a singular matrix. Therefore what travels through the matrix of corporality can also be transmitted to the matrix of the human seat of awareness i.e. to the mind body. This is the principle behind the harmonious activity of the body, speech or mind of the compound universal energy unit (human machine). Initially the zero determinants or the sensitive corporality get connected to an external object. This is called the focus of attention. The focus of attention is due to radiation of nuclear energy in the process of kinetic reversibility of Quaternion. In quantum terminology this is called as black body radiation^{37}. The radiations of trapped nuclear energy from the central area of Quaternion create a vacuum facilitating the transmission of incoming impulses into this central area. The phenomenal details of the five fold cognitive process is described in detail in the main text of the thesis.

At the moment of explosion of nuclear mass of Quaternion, interacting forces of constituent particles are weak. In the same way when it is about to get converted back to mass the forces become strong. This explains the weak and strong forces of quantum physics.^{38} The hadronic effect of Quaternion is what is described as electro-magnetic forces in quantum physics.^{39}

To understand the human fivefold cognitive process to the fullest extent the knowledge about the differences in energy levels of Quaternion of sensitive corporality and mind body is consequential. The Quaternion of sensitive corporality with continuous intermittent black body radiation is in a kinetic state. On the other hand the Quaternion of mind body or the human seat of awareness is in a potential state. This potential energy level keeps the entity of vacuum state of mind body Quaternion permanent. Such Quaternions of the human mind body have intrinsic potentialities in each of them to trigger off black body radiation after changing into kinetic reversibility energy states. This change of energy level occurs at the moment of attaining Buddhahood or *Arahant* hood. The condition of potential energy level found in the mind body is due to its configuration i.e. relative positions of its determinants. There are trillions of such determinants forming a singular matrix making the mind body to experience another field of force within its configuration. A rough sketch of the

the human mind body with trillions of zero determinants (singular matrix) showing the newly experienced field of force attracted by some source of influence is well illustrated in the following diagram as Fig.13. This is called the gravitate influence of mind body. It is the some total of the forces of trillions of zero determinants situated in the configuration of mind body experienced at its center.

**Fig.13 Gravitate Influence of Mind Body**

Gravitate influence is a force exerted towards the center of mind body and is experienced in a field located in this area. A very important point to note here is that the sum total of this force does not focus on an area entirely devoid of matter. This is a major difference found when comparing the restraint forces of Quaternion focusing on an area of emptiness before matrix formation. Therefore unlike in earlier instances, a third force is generated from this central area where gravitate influence is felt. The newly generated third force acts in four directions from this central area. The generation of a third force is entirely due to the fact that total force felt as a gravitational influence at the center from forces exerted by trillions of zero determinants located in the human mind body. In particle physics these zero determinants are named as a hypothetical quantum called graviton^{40}. Graviton has an individually distinct quantity of energy proportional in magnitude to the frequency of the radiation it represents. In other words it represents a basic cosmic energy unit with four distinct energy bodies. These energies cannot be created or destroyed. Therefore their presence has nothing to do with any divine power. Because of the square matrix configuration of the human mind body, the third force generated acts only in four directions. The four directions of the third force acting away from the compound structure of mind body are well illustrated in the following line diagram as Fig. 14.

**Fig.14 Third Force acting in four directions away from the square matrix of mind body **

The dotted area at the center represents the field where gravitate influences of trillions of gravitons (zero determinants) of mind body are present. Gravitons are energy bodies with trapped black body radiations in their central hallow. In matrix formation the energies of these gravitons are in potential states. This is why I called these as trapped black body radiations. Black body denotes a perfect absorber. The central vacuums of these energy bodies fulfill this requirement. Once the high energy shifts of particle spin are arrested due to the formation of singular matrix; the energy gets trapped in all the central vacuums formed. When you take the mind body as a whole the total influence of trillions of trapped energies is focused on to a field which is present at its center. Therefore this central area of mind body is under the influence of nuclear energy which is amounting to a sum total of trillion nuclear energies. This is the ground state of the mind body. Radiation of nuclear energy is not found at this ground state. Ground state of this compound nuclear matrix with trillions of energy bodies embedded exert a field effect of the influence of trapped black body radiations in four directions as illustrated in the line diagram Fig.14.

The field effect is present at four quadrangular areas of the space away from the compound nuclear matrix of the mind body. The four field effects are the results of hadronic effects of trillions of gravitons present in the compound nuclear matrix. Therefore these four areas of space with gravitational energy of gravitons are present can be called as gravitational fields of the compound nuclear matrix. They are electro-magnetic fields in the region of space surrounding the compound nuclear matrix in which another compound matrix experiences a force of attraction. In quantum as well as in Newtonian physics this force of attraction is called gravitation. According to the explanations given in my theory, gravitation is an electro-magnetic force experienced as a field effect in the region of space surrounding any compound nuclear matrix when it is at ground state.^{41}

The electro-magnetic effects of graviton at four areas of space surrounding the compound nuclear matrix are the areas where it is experienced at very high degrees. These areas are said to be having very high degrees of gravitational force. The in-between areas of space when moving away from two adjoining high degree areas, the gravitational force becomes gradually weak. The quantum mechanics involved in the phenomenon of gravitation in relation to a compound nuclear matrix is well illustrated in the following line diagram as Fig.15. The four dotted areas of space denoted by an encircled x are the areas of space having high degree of gravitational force. The four areas of space in-between dotted areas are the areas of space having low degree of gravitational force.

The above quantum explanations of *“Quantum Dynamical Evolution Theory* *of Sanathdeva Murutenge”* it is quite evident to all of us that the theory helps to explain all the field phenomena (e.g. gravitation and electromagnetism). Therefore it is a unified field theory where Einstein devoted all his time to develop when he was at the Institute for Advanced Studies in Princeton. Einstein died in 1955 without a breakthrough in Princeton.

**Fig.15 Phenomenon of gravitation in relation to a compound nuclear matrix**

The ground state of a compound nuclear matrix is a property of resistance offered in this existing state of rest against its acceleration. This is called ‘inertia’ of a compound nuclear matrix body. This property is an essential feature of a resting body to exert a field effect on another body at rest to initiate its motion by way of attraction. Because of this strong interrelation of acceleration of a gravitational field and the acceleration due to increase in motion, the two cannot be distinguished as separate entities. Therefore inertia is a property of any compound nuclear matrix formation involving both motion and nuclear matter content (mass). Though Newton was the first person to describe this concept as inertial mass of a body, the philosophers of sixteenth and seventeenth centuries namely Copernicus, Galileo and Descartes contributed lot to the early works on inertia.^{42} The force acting on a body in a gravitational field is called gravitational mass of that particular body.^{43 }Experimentally this has been found equivalent to the inertial mass of the body which initiate

this pulling force.^{44} This “principle of Equivalence”^{45} became the hallmark for Einstein to rethink about his earlier theory and to develop a new theory. This new theory of Einstein with components of space time and gravitation included came out as the *general theory of relativity*.^{46} The line diagram Fig.15 clearly illustrates that the spatial behavior of compound nuclear matrix with regard to its inertial mass is four dimensional in space-time continuum. The field effect of trillions of energy bodies is experienced continuously in surrounding space. In this situation the space and the time are not two entities; only their fusion can claim some sort of condition. Therefore it does not elucidate Euclidean geometry^{47}. If we take this condition as a point and draw an imaginary line where it exists what we get is an elliptical orbit. This is due to the four dimensional pulling of inertial mass of compound nuclear matrix. The four dimensional space-time continuums^{48} are distorted by the presence of matter in the compound nuclear matrix. The ground state of compound nuclear matrix with no black body radiation is matter. This situation is quite different from mind.

**Fig.16 Distortion of four dimensional space-time continuums by the gravitational field. S**^{3}**T**^{3}** represents the two entities fusing together to possess an existence. GI = Gravitate Influence. **

The above line diagram of Fig.16 illustrates how the four dimensional space-time continuum of any ground state nuclear matrix behaves at its potential energy state. What I mean by potential energy state here is that it constitutes only matter of inanimate nature with no blackbody radiation. A compound nuclear matrix with no black body radiation is considered here as a coherent body of matter with no vital animating essence.^{49} Therefore the gravitational field effect can be considered as a distortion of the four dimensional world-line. According to the principle of equivalence the gravitational field effects are the same in any coordinate system. The world-line being an invariant in this coordinate system, the inertial mass of another compound nuclear matrix which is in its ground state can exert some field effect on the other to change its energy level from potential to kinetic state. The changes of energy level take place in gravitons focusing on a corresponding world point within the distorted space-time continuum of the surrounding area. The change of energy levels of gravitons from ground state to excited state is called focus of attention and is due to electromagnetic field effect of the system. The field effect of the system is due to radiant energy. This is where optics comes into play. The principle of equivalence is used here in *general theory of relativity* to explain the most fundamental cosmic physical phenomena, viz. gravitation. Therefore gravitation is an electro-magnetic field effect experienced in areas of distorted four dimensional world-lines. This is how the quantum theory of radiation is explained in terms of cosmic dynamical evolution theory. But there are further questions to be answered. The quantum theory of radiation, though it is accepted by modern physicists is full of unexplained phenomena.^{50 }Now let us see how the new theory is going to face these problems of unexplained physical phenomena, viz. constancy of velocity of radiation and whether the radiation is wavy or corpuscular.

To understand these two fundamental cosmic physical phenomena let me harness the reader’s attention for a while to the black body radiation of Quaternion. As I have discussed earlier in this paper it is the excited state of Quaternion and also in an impermanent state of the energy body in constant flux of kinetic reversibility. Kinetic reversibility of Quaternion is due to interaction between its constituent particles and exists in positive and negative forms causing electrical phenomena. Therefore at this state of kinetic reversibility, the entire unit of Quaternion gets attracted to the external object of focus. During the course of this attraction the Quaternion is in constant flux of kinetic reversibility thus maintaining a constant velocity. This explains why all radiations exhibit a constant speed when propagated.^{51}

In kinetic reversibility of Quaternion, the energy body does not behave as a fixed entity. It is in constant flux while maintaining an electric discharge of its own causing an electric field effect. The field effect is due to positive and negative forms of electrical phenomena. An area with positive and negative forms of electrical phenomena is an electromagnetic field. The electromagnetic field is not a wave.^{52 }

Quaternion is an energy body with four basic elementary particles coming together. It is the ground state of Quaternion. In excited state or in kinetic reversibility of Quaternion the constituent four particles behave in such a way that it is in a state of flux. The amount of particles incident on this area can be ascertained only by frequency of positive and

negative forms of electrical phenomena. It is actually the rate of recurrence of positive and negative forms of electrical phenomena. If this rate of recurrence is transmitted to a device of oscillating rod and this is made to write-in on a moving paper what you get is called an oscillogram. An oscillogram does not represent a wave. Therefore the electromagnetic field is not a wave.

Corpuscle is a minute unit in an organized body. Here the organized body is the Quaternion. But in this situation this organized body is not an entity of distinct existing nature. In every moment it breaks into its constituents and reorganizes back to go into pieces again. In this change reaction what exists is only an electrical phenomenon of positive and negative forms. It is neither corpuscular nor particle in nature. Therefore an electromagnetic field effect cannot be regarded as corpuscular or particle in nature. The conclusion we can arrive at is the radiant energy is nothing but only an electrical phenomenon of positives and negatives in flux which can be demonstrated by way of frequency fluctuation using an oscillograph.^{53 }

The above discussions on quantum radiation according to the principles of *Quantum Dynamical Evolution Theory of Sanathdeva Murutenge* the most puzzling question in the history of physics on radiation is finally scientifically explained.

**Fig.17 Frequency of positive and negative forms of electrical phenomena in an electromagnetic field recorded on a moving role of paper (oscillogram)**

The above figure of Fig.17 illustrates frequency of electrical phenomena of human three dimensional mind activity recorded by an encephalography. Electrical phenomena of the fourth dimension of mind cannot be recorded due to its intrinsic subtle nature. Therefore I may like to discuss the fourth dimension of mind on a theoretical basis alone in this paper.

At some point of the discussions made in this paper earlier I have incontrovertibly shown that the human mind body is a singular matrix. Gravitational field or inertial mass of an external object exerts influence on the ground state mind body matrix to reverse its energy bodies to an excited state. Energy body of the ground state is governed by integer rules. In excited states certain intrinsic periodicity has to be allotted to constituent parts. This is the kinetic energy state of mind body matrix. The resultant black body radiation causes an electromagnetic focus of attention on the object that initiated this field effect. In this particular moment the mind body is in a state of constant impetuous electrical phenomenon on four dimensional continuums. The singular matrix of mind has turned into four energy forms with charge. Here the four dimensional space-time continuums are not present to be distorted by the gravitational field due to non non-existence of matrix. No matrix means there is no matter. These are the theoretical physics involved in the process of four dimensional insight of mind.^{54} This also explains the nature of the human seat of awareness as black body radiation.

Black body radiation of the human seat of awareness in four dimensional discerning is well illustrated in the following line diagram as Fig.18. Circle at the center denotes ground state energy body governed by integer rules. Four circles in outer orbit denote an energy body of excited state in constant impetuous electrical phenomenon on four different dimensional continuums viz. 1D, 2D, 3D and 4D. It is the radiating orbit of energy body.^{55} According to *Quantum Dynamical Evolution Theory *the circle at center represents an atom at its ground state with nuclear energy trapped inside the central black body area while the flow of hadrons current in the form of positives and negatives in flux (see illustration Fig.8). Therefore atom in a ground state should have a static number of positive and negative forms of effect at a given moment. This is the electromagnetic field effect before black body radiation. If this field effect is mapped out and reproduced as a diagram the negative area always remains in a fixed orbit of definite size. In other words all the non-radiating orbits of negative forms will have the same radii. At this point I may like to focus the reader’s attention back to the line diagram of Fig.8. The illustration B clearly exhibits the final arrangement of positives and negatives of hadrons current flow. Once this is established and with the constant flux of electrical phenomena occurring in close association with bipolar effect of two opposite charges there will be a waveform appearing on the reproduced mapped diagram. I may like to emphasize at this point that this waveform is not a wave.^{56} What you get is a surface containing points affected in the same way by a wave at a given moment. This is the reason why after the recognition of quantum theory by physicists they were forced to recognize a dual nature i.e. wave and particle for radiant energy. But now with the emergence of *Quantum Dynamical Evolution Theory* *of Sanathdeva Murutenge* the existing mathematical theories of radiant energy should take a new paradigm shift. The waveform of negative electrical phenomena of the ground state atom is well illustrated in line diagram as Fig.19.

**Fig.18 Black body radiation of human seat of awareness in four dimensional discerning **

**BBR = Black Body Radiation**

**Central Circle represents an atom at ground state**

**Four Peripheral Circles denotes the same atom in radiation in four different dimensions **

**1D, 2D, 3D, 4D = Respective Four Dimensions**

**r = distance between the two orbits of ground state and radiating state of atom**

According to the above line diagram the distance between the two states of atom (r) in all four dimensions remains the same. Therefore (r) is a constant in this state of black body radiation of an atom.^{57 }

**Fig.19 Waveform of negative electrical phenomena**

In the above line diagram of Fig.19 the waveform of negative electrical phenomena represents an area where the density of negative forms can be taken on to an oscillogram. The central vacuum is filled with potential energy of trapped energies of high energy particle spin. This is due to the formation of four particle units. At this juncture it is very important to note that the negative electrical phenomenon of four particle units is four dimensional in total effect. Each effective area is an orbital. An orbital represents only a discrete amount of negative electrical phenomena. Altogether there are four such effective areas in an atom. This is called quantization of negative electrical phenomena.^{58} Now it is quite clear that the Quantization is represented by a number. It is the quantum number of that particular effective area of an atom and is called orbital quantum number.^{59} The quantum number of all four effective areas is called principal quantum number.^{60} These two quantum numbers are applicable only to an atom of ground state i.e. non radiating atom.

Principal quantum number (*n*) is the result of quantization of negative electrical phenomena of atoms. It can also be called a total quantum number. It is due to the total result of four effective areas of atom. Therefore it is the principal factor which determines the size of the negative electrical phenomenal area of an atom. If one cosmic unit i.e. quaternion is taken into consideration the value of principal quantum number *n *is equal to a unity. When trillions of such quaternions are taken into consideration i.e. singular matrix of human seat of awareness the value of principal quantum number *n *is equal to infinity.

Again I may like to focus our attention back to one cosmic unit of the singular matrix of the mind body at its lowest possible energy level i.e. ground state. It is made out of four particles viz. W, X, Y and Z. They are cosmic particles of high energy shift made to unite in the process of high energy collision (see Fig.4 and Fig.5). According to explanations given so far in this paper it is very clear to all of us that in one dimension there is overlapping of negative electrical phenomena of two adjacent particles. The Combined field effect of these two particles makes one orbital of two negative forms of two adjacent particles. Therefore at one given moment the two negative forms of electrical phenomena do not exhibit same characteristics due to one reason i.e. they belong to two different quarks.^{61} According to the basic structure given in this paper a cosmic unit or the Quaternion exhibits four such areas of combine field effects of negative forms. The four combined field effects of Quaternion due to the flow of hadrons current within the framework of four quarks is illustrated in following line diagram as Fig.20.

**Fig.20 the four combine field effects (1, 2, 3, and 4) of Quaternion due to the flow of hadrons current within the framework of four quarks. W, X, Y and Z denote four elemental quarks. **

The above line diagram shows four areas of combine field effects of negative electrical phenomena. They are electromagnetic field effects. When considering the orbital 1, two negative forms appearing at one given moment in this orbital are actually in Z and Y quarks. Likewise in orbital’s 2, 3 and 4 negative forms are within the frameworks of respective adjacent two quarks. Quarks are imperceptible. Therefore what we observe here is only the field effects of electrical phenomena of four quarks. There are no such orbiting negative forms in this electromagnetic phenomenal. In singular matrix of human seat of awareness there are trillions of such Quaternion giving electromagnetic field effects. But one has to bear in mind that this is the electromagnetic field effect of ground state quantum matrix of human seat of awareness. This is called matrix mechanics of non-radiating human seat of awareness at subtle stage i.e. the stage without a form. Now with this complete background knowledge of ground stage matrix mechanics of singular matrix of mind the mechanics of four dimensional discerning I discussed earlier in this paper is fully explained. In quantum mechanics the human consciousness can be defined as electromagnetic field effect of a singular matrix in blackbody radiation.^{62} When operating as a compound unit of name and form the forth dimension is impede by macrocosm of eye (see line diagram of Fig.18). This explains the three dimensional range of vision of human eye.

The flow of hadrons current within the imperceptible frameworks of quarks are the result of fractional electrical charges. Quarks are elementary particles^{63}. They are the basic constituents of Quaternion. Therefore these fractional electrical charges can be called elementary charges. I have already explained that these fractional electrical charges are due to electrical phenomena. The Hadronic effect and the bipolar effect of Quaternion play important roles effectively in activating this electrical phenomenon of Quaternion. All these have been discussed in detail in the preceded pages of this paper. At a given moment when these fractional electrical charges are measured by an oscillogram the density of positive and negative forms are measured. In the oscillogram upward deflections represent positive forms and downward deflections negative forms. By careful perusal of the oscillogram it is quite evident that at one given moment the sum total of electrical charge is always three i.e. when upward deflection is two the downward deflection is always one. This is due to the fact that out of the four quarks of Quaternion one is gaseous in nature and acts only as an integral. The integral quark of Quaternion has a zero spin value. At this juncture there is a very important point to highlight regarding the basic structure of Quaternion. It is about the four corresponding demarcated vacuum spaces at the center. They represent hidden quarks of the four main quarks of Quaternion. The hadrons current can pass through these four demarcated vacuum spaces affecting an electrical phenomenon.^{64} These electrical charges can be called elementary charges of hidden quarks. But out of the four spaces one space acts only as an integral. Therefore in actual quantity wise there are only six quarks to be noted along with corresponding six elementary charges.

**Fig.21 density of positive and negative forms of electrical phenomena taken on to an oscillogram **

**AB = at one given moment**

Even though I have mentioned here as six quarks to be noted, the *Quantum Dynamical Evolution Theory (*abbreviated *QDE Theory)* of *Sanathdeva* *Murutenge *always considers the total existing quantity of quarks as eight. Therefore according to *QDE Theory *the total number of elementary charges has to be eight. Any disagreement to this by the scientific community is due to the results of various studies done viz. quantum chromodynamics^{65} *(QCD)*, photoelectric effect^{66} and scattering effect of quantum electrodynamics^{67} *(QED)*. For an examplethe hypothetical particle gluon described in the theory of *QCD *is nonexistent according to *QDE Theory*. In *QDE Theory *the strong interactions between subatomic particles are described in terms of hadronic effect and bipolar effect. Likewise in studies of photoelectric effect the photon, the quantum of electromagnetic energy and the electron, the quantum of electric charge has led to discover a long list of subatomic particles along with fractional electrical charges. With the discovery of more and more particles in the research field of particle physics the physicists are facing a difficult task of finding an acceptable simple theory analogous to the present atomic model as everything is in a rather confusing state. The existing knowledge base does not seem to be even closer to some sort of breakthrough. On the other hand the contributions made so far by various physicists including Nobel Prize winners to this field of study definitely cannot be underestimated. What I have done in this paper is rather negligible when compared to what they have contributed to the advancement of this field. Mathematical attire may take years to add beauty to my theory. With all these facts in mind again I may like to harness the reader’s attention back to my model of Quaternion in order to explain a few more things about quarks.

The basic Quaternion model discussed in this paper has four components viz. water (W), heat (X), gas (Y) and earth (Z).^{68} But it is very important to say that what I meant

The water component is not the secular meaning given to the bound state of two hydrogen atoms with one oxygen atom. In particle physics what is meant by water particle is the degree of glueyness of that particle. In the same way a heat particle is the particle which exhibits the degree of temperature. In particle physics gas is an integral and earth is an intensifier. According to *QDE Theory* of this paper they are particles which support the Quaternion model. The Quaternion is taken as the basic cosmic energy unit or the atomic model. Therefore the four components are taken as subatomic particles or quarks. Quaternion is an energy body having the power of radiation. This radiation is proportional to a discrete quantity of energy it represents. Therefore Quaternion is a quantized model having a value of radiation property. This value is called the quantum number of the Quaternion. Quantum number represents an energy level due to its configuration i.e. relative positions of its determinants. During the process of various laboratory experiments condensation^{69} of subatomic particles takes place with the elimination of integer components from each of the Quaternion models resulting in a change in the proportionate energy level. The newly formed model may have statistically different components in particle configuration and related electrical phenomenon. A confusingly long list of subatomic particles and fractional electrical charges are the result of this condensation process taking place in Quaternion during experimental procedures.

The four quarks denoted by W, X, Y and Z in the basic Quaternion model represent matter. The central hallow is a vacuum having corresponding four special areas denoted by h, I, j and k. These areas represent hidden quarks of the corresponding four quarks and can be called as antimatter^{70} of Quaternion. Maxwell has shown that the hadrons current can pass through a vacuum. Therefore these areas of antimatter can have exactly the opposite electrical charges of its corresponding quarks representing matter. Quaternion model in terms of particle physics according to *QDE Theory* is well illustrated in the following diagram as Fig.22.

**Fig.22 Quaternion model showing its matter and antimatter according to ***QDE Theory*

The components representing matter are high energy running (abbreviated *r*) particles (Glue, Heat, Gas and Earth) having as an axis (on) viz. *Glueron, Heatron, Gasron and Earthron*.^{71} The corresponding antimatter is always an electrical charge. The four corresponding antimatter can be described by four words viz. *Gluearon, Heataron, Gasaron *and *Eartharon*.^{72} Antimatter helps to consolidate the system of Quaternion models on a permanent basis. Quaternion model of atomic structure described in *QDE Theory* composed of four high energy particles and their corresponding four electrical charges described in particle physics as antimatter. The four high energy particles are called soul magnetic particles (abbreviated *SM- *Particles) and their corresponding charges as soul magnetic charges (abbreviated *SM- *Charges).^{73} They are the embodied qualities of Quaternion. The integral particle *Gasron* has a zero spin quantum number (*s*). The reason for this zero spin quantum number is because of its participation only as a property of expansion necessary to the completeness of the Quaternion model. The other three particles viz. *Glueron, Heatron *and *Earthron* have values of spin quantum numbers. The spin quantum numbers are intrinsic to each particle having the origin of 360 degrees of high energy particle shift before collision took place. Also these values indicate the degree of freedom the particles had before collision. The degree of freedom has been explained at elementary level of particle physics in detail at the very beginning of this paper.

The different statistical values of spin quantum numbers are due to the fact that the constituent four particles of Quaternion model having different degrees of intrinsic

nature in them. This in turn executes some restraint effect on the distribution of hadrons current in the Quaternion atomic model. The hadrons current can pass through a vacuum (Maxwell). The vacuum represents the four imaginary areas of antimatter having the effects of hadrons current of four particles of Quaternion as four electrical charges of four different statistical values of spin quantum numbers. So according to *QDE Theory *the statistical values of spin quantum numbers can be broadly classified in to two groups’ i.e. those which represent matter and those which represent antimatter. This is the elementary explanation of the connection between spin quantum numbers and their different statistical values.^{74 }

In the case of particles which represent matter of Quaternion the spin quantum number is restricted to a single value. This is because they rotate about ones own axis in one direction. I have already explained in this paper that the antimatter is always an electrical charge. The existing knowledge base has described their ‘spin quantum numbers’ to denote this electrical charge taken on to an oscillogram as forms of electrical phenomena in densities. Due to kinetic reversibility of Quaternion there is always a change of direction in hadrons current flow in the matter component. This in turn will have an effect on the direction of deflections in the record of oscillograms in successive kinetic reversibility taking place in the Quaternion atomic model as upward and downward deflections. Here the ‘spin quantum number’ is the same but the direction may have opposite values in the case of antimatter. Taken more comprehensively the modern physicists have described this electrical phenomenon as two values viz. clockwise and counterclockwise or up and down behaviour of antimatter.

**Fig.23 density of negative forms of electrical phenomena taken on to an oscillogram at two different equal moments showing two values of particle spin**

**AB = at one given moment **

To comprehend the circumstance of hadrons current activity in Quaternion atomic model it is of value to go in deep to some of its graphic representation components which may prove the physics of mechanism in support of my *QDE Theory*. For this let us

concentrate again on to a part of the comprehensive oscillogram of electrical phenomena of Quaternion atomic model illustrated below as Fig.24.

**Fig.24 Graphic representation of hadrons current activity of Quaternion atomic model taken on to an oscillogram**

Now let us view a magnified small area of the oscillogram. What is seen from this particular point can be reconstituted as a line diagram of electrical phenomena in the illustration below.

**Fig.25 reconstituted magnified view of electrical phenomena of the Quaternion atomic model taken from an oscillogram showing multiple axes of particle spin. Dotted lines denote multiple axes. **

This explains beyond any doubt that the oscillographic record of the human seat of awareness is not a wave. It does not define any of the features of defining a wave for it to be considered as a wave activity. Therefore the origin of biological cybernation is black body radiation of electromagnetic field effect causing electrical phenomena. Now the next question is how this effect is transmitted within the framework of biological cybernetic coordination of volition. To start with I would like to harness the reader’s attention back to matrix formation of the human mind.

In this paper I have critically proven my argument that the human seat of awareness viz. consciousness is a singular matrix. According to systematic philosophy of Buddhism this component is called the ‘mind-group’ (as distinguished from the corporeality-group). This twofold grouping is frequent in commentaries (e.g. *Visuddhimagga* – The Path of Purification). For two matrices to amalgamate both must be of the same order. In quantum mechanics this is called matrix addition. When they are of the same order they are supposed to be equal to each other. In quantum mechanics this is called equality of matrices. Therefore what originates in the singular matrix of mind is transmitted effectively to the body. The human machine viz. ‘compound universal energy unit’ (the name implied in my thesis *Scientific Basis of the Systematic Philosophy of Buddhism*)is the best example found in nature to explain this quantum mechanism in comparison with a biological system.

Earlier in this paper I discussed the four dimensional insight of mind. This mechanism applies only to subtle states of mental energies often referred to the intelligent non-physical part of a person; the soul. Because of this quantum mechanism of 4D vision they possess higher powers of intelligence exceeding what possessed by a normal human being. This hidden principle of human quantum mechanics of mind can be used as a method of espionage in highly advanced intelligence services of the world.

In human corporeality there are five sense bases viz. eye, ear, nose and skin. Out of the five only eye and ear sense bases are having the potentiality of kinetic reversibility of Quaternion in facilitating black body radiation to have focus of attention. Quaternion atomic model found in these two bases are called sensitive corporeality of eye base and ear base. This distinctiveness is responsible in selecting the mechanism of operation in cognition i.e. electromagnetic field effect when compare to other three sense bases having direct contact mechanism. Black body radiation of the Quaternion atomic model of eye/ear followed by focus of attention is the triggering factor in biological cybernation of higher animals. Though there are four windows of radiation in a Quaternion atomic model in the case of eye/ear sense bases the fourth window is open towards the body. Therefore black body radiation of this fourth window does not focus on to an external object of space. This keeps the higher animals’ field of vision at three dimensional levels. But in astral state the vision becomes four dimensional with the opening of astral senses. Astral senses are excited Quaternion atomic models in continuous flux of kinetic reversibility. In corporeality they are called sensitive corporalities of eye/ear bases. The resultant black body radiation of excited Quaternion atomic model is transmitted to the adjacent ground state Quaternion atomic model as hadrons current.

The way of transmission of hadrons current from one Quaternion atomic model to the adjacent Quaternion atomic model is called quantum leap. As I have described earlier in this paper the kinetic energy state of the Quaternion atomic model is responsible for electromagnetic radiation. This is what exactly happens in human cognition. The Quaternion atomic model of this state is present in the human eye. In Theravada philosophical psychology of Buddhism this atomic unit is described as sensitive corporality. In quantum mechanics it is a proven fact that in a larger atomic mass this kinetic energy can be stored as potential energy until it is ignited to a kinetic energy state with a massive explosion of electromagnetic radiation.

In human corporeality the dramatic increase in the occupancy of Quaternion atomic models make them to be at their lowest momentum states. As in each of the Quaternion atomic models when particles settle down into this lowest momentum state their quantity increases in numbers. In quantum mechanics this is described as condensation. Condensation occurs due to attractive forces of adjacent Quaternion atomic models of symmetry property of wave function. What I meant by the symmetry* property of the wave function* of the Quaternion atomic model is that when they are free the electromagnetic radiation is the same in all participant Quaternions. The gradual lowering of momentum state of each of the participant Quaternion atomic models is an energy conservation process taking place within each of Quaternion atomic models. This conserved atomic energy is stored as potential energy and is responsible for the transmission of hadrons current to various parts of the human body in controlling various volitional activities it performs. In the physical part of the human body all the Quaternion atomic models are in potential energy states with the two exceptions; the sensitive corporealities of eye and ear. In the mental part or the human seat of awareness they remain as dormant potential energy states until such time some of them can be converted to kinetic energy states by contemplative exercises described in the main body of the thesis. In Theravada philosophical psychology of Buddhism these converted Quaternion atomic models of the human mind body are called astral senses. They lead the person to higher powers of cognition. Now let us see how this quantum leap takes place in terms of quantum mechanics in order to facilitate the transmission of hadrons current from mind body to corporal body.

The quantum mechanism of origin of hadrons current in Quaternion atomic models of sensitive corporalities of eye and ear as described earlier in this paper are due to their energy balance between mass and energy. This quality helps to trigger-off the fivefold thought process described in commentaries of Theravada philosophical psychology of Buddhism. Here the electrical phenomenon of the Quaternion atomic model of sensitive corporality does not behave as a free atom in radiation of its trapped nuclear energy. At the fourth dimension of radiating orbit there is an abridgement (condensation) with other Quaternion atomic models of corporality. These Quaternion atomic models are in potential energy states. At this point of fourth dimension of radiating orbit the exit of electromagnetic radiation takes place. This is the starting point of transmission of electromagnetic radiation in the form of hadrons current in human corporeality. The transmission of hadrons current is always in close relation to the inter-particle tracts of Quaternion atomic models. This is illustrated in the following diagram of Fig.26.

**Fig.26 inter-particle tract of the 4**^{th}** dimension of radiating orbit showing the exit point of electromagnetic radiation**

**W, X, Y and Z are the four hadrons of Quaternion atomic model**

In the process of condensation there are trillions of Quaternion atomic models of potential energy states in the human body. The transmission of electromagnetic radiation in the form of hadrons current between two adjacent Quaternion atomic models exhibits a binary system of network.^{75} This binary system of network operates in a very complex pattern. The Quaternion atomic model introduced by the *QDE Theory* has six inter-particle tracts having six directions. Therefore if this binary system of transmission is analyzed mathematically the complex system of network can be defined in terms of six binary (ON-OFF) variables i.e. the direction of transmission can change six times. When transmission takes place one Quaternion atomic model passes from definite state to another specific successor state viz. ON-OFF-ON. Therefore in this situation the Quaternion atomic model of *QDE Theory* can be described as a point in a six dimensional phase space i.e. a point in a periodically recurring sequence.

**Fig.27 six binary variables of Quaternion atomic model acting as a six dimensional phase space point **

As shown in the above line diagram the nuclear energy trapped inside the Quaternion atomic model has six exit points and the Quaternion acts as a six dimensional phase space point. The movement of particles charge as positives and negatives is only the determining factor at the sensitive corporality level Quaternion atomic model for the radiation of nuclear energy at the 4^{th} dimensional radiating orbit to go through these six exit points of condensed atomic mass by maintaining the energy balance between mass and energy. This is called the statistical equilibrium of matter and radiation because the radiation comes at a statistical equilibrium with matter. In period of unit time there is an equal amount of taken in and sent out nuclear energy of radiation per unit surface of the central cavity of Quaternion in a binary network fashion along six binary variables of the phase space point. Therefore it is quite clear to the reader that the nuclear energy is not depending upon particles charge, but its elementariness finally rest on particles. This factor was proved by me at the

beginning of this paper (see high energy particle shift). This also explains what travels in the inter-particle tracts of the complex binary network of the human body as black body radiation.

Let us harness our attention back to the radiation exit point of the 4^{th} dimensional radiating orbit. Here the black body radiation is in equilibrium with Quaternion atomic mass. For the reason that it represents a solitary Quaternion unit of energy we cannot describe this in statistical terms of mathematics. Therefore any radiation of energy from this unit has to be calculated in absolute terms of mathematics because each unit represents a syntactically independent system of kinetic reversibility of the Quaternion atomic model. One system does not influence the other system of the Quaternion atomic model. In the case of transmission within the binary system of the network due to six binary variables the energy has to be calculated in statistical terms of mathematics written in vector notation.

By summing up all the phenomenological explanations of *QDE Theory* in terms of quantum mechanics of this paper I would like to decorate it with a mathematical attire to beautify the radiation mechanics of black body radiation of the Quaternion atomic model in terms of absolute mathematical physics.

Black body radiation phenomenon in one system of the Quaternion atomic model is denoted by the Greek letter *ψ*. Quaternion is a closed system having four components denoted by *w,x,y and z.* Therefore the radiation phenomenon in one system of Quaternion can be written as,

*ψ* = w+ *x *+ *y *+ *z *………………………………………………………………………….(1)

There can be *n *number of such systems at sensitive corporality level in human body. The compound system has *n *number of subsystems which do not interact with each other. Therefore the radiation phenomenon in *n *number of systems can be written as,

*∫*^{ n}*Σ ψ = ∫ *^{n}* Σ (w + x + y + z) *…………………………………………(2)

*Σ *represents a system of components with individual characteristics. As I have described earlier a Quaternion is a closed system. The total energy of this closed system is equal to *ψ*. The total energy of the system in mass is equal to *ψ**m*. Therefore the total energy of the system in radiation is equal to *ψ**e*. This is the excited state of the Quaternion atomic model.

*ψ* = *ψ**m* = *ψ**e* ………………………………………………………………………………(3)

In kinetic reversibility of Quaternion this can be written as,

*ψ *↔ *ψ**m* ↔ *ψ**e* ………………………………………………………(4)

*ψ**m*= *w + x + y + z *…………………………………………………(5)

*ψ* ↔ *(w + x + y + z )* ↔ *ψ**e * is one system…………………………(6)

There is ∞ number of such systems in human body. Therefore taking the equation number (2) this can be written as,

*∫*^{∞}* Σ ψ ↔ ∫*^{∞}* Σ (w + x + y + z) ↔ ψ**e *………………………………(7)

When there is an infinite number of such systems according to *QDE Theory *I have shown that the influence of gravitation *(g)* intervenes. The amount of this gravitational influence wills always be constant *(k) *to this compound system at a particular moment. Therefore the equation number (7) can be restructured as,

*∫*^{∞}* Σ ψ k.g ↔ ∫*^{∞}* Σ (w + x + y + z) k.g ↔ ψ**e. **k.g**……………………*(8)

The above equation is the final where the equilibrium radiation of Quaternion can be measured in absolute terms of mathematical physics and such a Quaternion atomic model can be called as an “absolute black body”. The equilibrium radiation coming out at the exit point of 4^{th} dimension radiating orbit is called “black body radiation”. In the kinetic reversibility state of the Quaternion atomic model the radiation and absorption are equal. In this situation the Quaternion atomic model which has a cavity in the center and aperture at the 4^{th} dimensional radiating orbit is brought to an incandescent state. Therefore at the 4^{th} dimensional radiating orbit exit point exhibits a radiant glow. There are an infinite number of such exit points in the mind body i.e. human seat of awareness (consciousness) in the process of cognition. This explains why the astral body is discerned as a radiant glow.

Once the equilibrium radiation of the absolute black body is exited at the 4^{th} dimensional radiating orbit it is in the binary network of Quaternion atomic crystal lattice. Here the activation of *ON-OFF *binary switching rule varies according to circumstances and one quantity depends upon another or upon a system of others in such a way as to assume a definite value when a system of definite values is given to the others it is called a *“function”* of those others. At this point of six dimensional phase space the potential radiation function has to be calculated from an infinitesimal difference between six successive values of a variable.^{76} This is where the complex mathematical calculus by differential equations comes in to play.^{77} I have shown to the reader that the human seat of awareness i.e. consciousness is a singular matrix. Therefore at this point of six dimensional phase space the function of radiation takes an infinite value especially in space-time because here the matter is infinitely dense at the centre of this black hole. Therefore in terms of calculus function of radiation *f* these points are classified as “essential singularities”^{78} because they are not poles and also not removable thus has to be calculated by infinite series of theorems i.e. *Taylor’s *and *Laurent’s *series of theorems.^{79 }

The calculation of radiation energy function *f* from one system to the adjacent system i.e. two six dimensional phase space points during *ON-OFF *phases are done by *Laurent’s Theorem*.^{80} According to the circumstance in force there are six binary variables. Therefore what you really measure in this situation is the rate of change of this *ON-OFF* phase from one variable to anothergoing up to the maximum of six independent variables. In

this situation the calculation is done by differential equations with six independent variables viz. ά, β, γ, δ, ε and ζ.

Let us consider *C**1 *and *C**2* be the two six dimensional phase space points of two adjacent systems. *C**1 *has α^{1}, β^{1}, γ^{1}, δ^{1}, ε^{1} and ζ^{1} as six independent variables. Likewise the system *C**2 *has α ^{2}, β^{2}, γ^{2}, δ^{2}, ε^{2} and ζ^{2} as its six independent variables. Assume that the radiation of nuclear energy from system *C**1 *to system *C**2 *is going to take place according to a particular circumstance in force along α binary tract of the two systems. In this situation α^{1} is a function of α^{2} is expressed as, α^{1} = *f *(α^{2}) or α^{1} = *F *(α^{2}) or α^{1} = *ф* (α^{2}).

In the same way the radiation functions of other five tracts can be expressed in following equations viz. β^{1} = *f *(β^{2}) or β^{1} = *F* (β^{2}) or β^{1} = *ф* (β^{2}), γ^{1} = *f *(γ^{2}) or γ^{1} = *F *(γ^{2}) or γ^{1} = *ф* (γ^{2}), ………………………………….and ζ^{1} = *f *(ζ^{2}) or ζ^{1} = *F *(ζ^{2}) or ζ^{1} = *ф* (ζ^{2}).

Again if we take *C**1 *and *C**2 *being any two points within the one system of the ON-OFF binary system having six binary variables. Then we have,

*f *(*C**1 *+ *C**2*) = *Σ* *f* {α^{1}, β^{1}, γ^{1}, δ^{1}, ε^{1}, ζ^{1}} + *Σ f* {α^{2}, β^{2}, γ^{2}, δ^{2}, ε^{2}, ζ^{2} }……(9)

I have already shown that the black body radiation or the Quaternion nuclear energy is not moving charges of particles. Therefore *Coulomb’s Law** ^{81}*can be brought in here to calculate the force

*F*between two six dimensional phase space points of the binary network of Quaternion atomic crystal lattice. According to

*Coulomb’s Law*if

*r*is the distance between

*C*

*1*and

*C*

*2,*the force between the two is given in magnitude as,

* C**1** C**2*

* F =** ———-* ……………………………(10)

* K **r*^{2}

The constant *k *which is called the *dielectric constant, *depends on the medium; in a vacuum *k *= 1 unless otherwise specified. According to *QDE Theory C**1 *and *C**2 *are six dimensional phase space points representing two vacuums. All the systems in this binary network of Quaternion lattice are in potential energy states. The force acting on *C**1* system is called the *electric field intensity *at *C**1 *and is denoted by *E**1*. This force is from a potential ф which is called the *electrostatic potential*. In symbols this is expressed as,

*E**1** = – *grad ф ………………………………………………………….. (11)

Here the charge distribution is on six dimensional phase space. Therefore the *electrostatic potential E**1*is given as,

*E**1** = eα** ^{1}*+

*eβ*

*+*

^{1}*eγ*

*+*

^{1}*eδ*

*+*

^{1}*eε*

*+*

^{1}*eζ*

*……………………………….. (12)*

^{1}Likewise the force acting on *C**2 *system also can be calculated.

*E**2** =* *e*α^{2}+ *eβ** ^{2}*+

*eγ*

*+*

^{2}*eδ*

*+*

^{2}*eε*

*+*

^{2}*eζ*

^{2}^{ …}……………………………… (13)

At any two given six dimensional phase space points of the binary network of Quaternion atomic crystal lattice work, the distance is the same because of its symmetrical singular matrix. Therefore the distance *r *is a constant. *Coulomb’s constant k *is a secondary constant of nature. The calculation of force *F *between any two six dimensional phase space point’s radiation field intensities by *Coulomb’s Law *what we get is a homogeneous value. This explains the uniformity of black body radiation in the human seat of awareness.

Now let us consider the total radiation energy calculation of the complex binary network of the Quaternion atomic crystal lattice. Here what we calculate is the binomial expansion of radiation function of any *ON-OFF* binarysystem to infinity. This is where *Taylor’s Theorem** ^{82}* comes into the forefront. If the ON-OFF sequence of allbinary systems of the human seat of awareness converges for all values of

*z*(six dimensional phase space points) in a region

*R, R*is defined as the

*region of convergence*of the sequence. In this

*region of convergence*total radiation energy function is

*f*(z). If we consider

*f*(z) be analytic inside this

*region of convergence*

*R*and

*C*

*1*and

*C*

*2*be six dimensional phase space points inside

*R*, then the total radiation function

*f*(z) can be calculated from nearest singularity (

*n = 0*) to infinity (

*n = ∞*). If the nearest singularity of

*f*(z) is at infinity, the radius of convergence is infinite. Nearest singularity is a six dimensional phase space point which the total radiation energy function

*f*(z) fails to be analytic. By this we are in a position to calculate the total consumable radiation energy generated at the level of the human seat of awareness in cognition for volition.

From the above explanations so far discussed in this paper I being an independent researcher tried my level best to established the fact that the new Quaternion atomic model of *QDE Theory *goes hand in hand in explaining all the mechanics of particle physics in favour of its scientific authoritativeness to become the final *theory of everything** ^{83}*representing a comprehensive unified worldview based on a single unifying principle. The practical and theoretical applications of

*QDE Theory*in comparison with biological cybernetic viz. humanity are found in detail in the companion volume.

**Highlights of ***QDE Theory*** and New Scientific Discoveries Made ****– **

It explains all the fundamental laws of universe based on a single unifying principle hence can be considered as the final *Theory of Everything*.

It does not get involve in mathematical quantities at the beginning and the fundamental constants are non-existent at this level.

It explains a definite geometric pattern of a particle intrinsic to all elementary particles of the universe.

It explains the self organization of nature.

It explains the Quantization of gravity.

It explains basic building blocks of the universe and how they interact to create the complexity of nature.

It explains all the forces and the elementary constituents of universe.

It explains space-time dimension as four.

It combines empirical observations with philosophical insight and finally pierces in to a mathematical frame work to answer many outstanding problems in physics.

It reveals the secret central principle of construction.

It explains what energy is and its constituents.

Still maintaining its own identity the *QDE Theory *has discovered many universal conservation laws.

It has a fundamental equation of nature.

* QDE Theory* explains the basis of its fundamental principles.

It explains the physical mechanism behind gravity.

It explains the physical mechanism behind quantum mechanics.

It explains a model of consciousness.

It explains a new Quaternion atomic model.

It has incontrovertibly answered the question of particle and wave concepts of elementary particles.

Quaternion atomic model introduced in *QDE Theory* has proved that the mass is a structured arrangement of energy.

The conceptual difficulty of explaining how particles self organized into charged matter is well answered in *QDE Theory*.

The physical mechanism responsible for properties of particles e.g. mass, charge, spin, flavor and color which arises with the self-organization of energy is systematically described in *QDE Theory*.

The *QDE Theory *has become a new paradigm shift to the theory of quantum electrodynamics in explaining the electromagnetic field. This is a significant event in the

development of modern physics since the theory of quantum electrodynamics was introduced more than fifty years ago.

The *QDE Theory *also has become a new paradigm shift to the electroweak theory by explaining the mechanism of electromagnetic interactions completely on a new footing.

The *QDE Theory *has taken a new dimension in explaining quantum chromodynamics. This also explains the origin of mass. It gives light to a positive mathematical definition to the limited gap of mass and energy. In other words it explains a positive finite mass gap. This also explains why the strong force is short-ranged. Finally it is the *QDE Theory *that explains all the mysteries of quantum chromodynamics.

The Quaternion atomic model of *QDE Theory *has gone beyond the standard model that was formulated in the early 1970s for following reasons,

- By cooperating missing gravitational force into its model.
- By its simplicity.
- By treating all the forces as a unified single manifestation.
- By not depending on arbitrary constants.
- By explaining a symmetry group e.g. singular matrix.
- By explaining particles.

Therefore the *QDE Theory* is a higher theory than the standard model.

The *QDE Theory* whileretaining both *Quantum Field Theory *and the *General Theory of Relativity* as valid theories in their own limitations has gone further to fill-in the gaps of unexplainable phenomena.

The *QDE Theory *explains the origin of Dark matter and its relation to gravitational attraction.

The *QDE Theory *explains by its Quaternion atomic model what dark energy is. Finally Albert Einstein’s term the ‘quantum vacuum energy’ is well explained in this theory.

It explains how cosmic structures are formed in the universe.

The *QDE Theory *explains the hidden dimensions of black hole singularity e.g. the information processing system.

The *QDE Theory *explains how the laws of nature break down at black hole singularity in relation to human consciousness where energy is not conserved and causality breaks down. Though this may be catastrophic for physics but in spirituality it is quite agreeable with the laws of nature (see main text of the companion volume).

The *QDE Theory *explains both types of time travel viz. future and past in relation to human consciousness (see main text of the companion volume).

The *QDE Theory *explains the origin of the universe.

It establishes the scientific basis of philosophical doctrinal systems of the world e.g. systematic philosophy of Buddhism. This work comes under **analytical philosophy of scientific era** replacing the old **historical philosophy** **of the pre-scientific era** (see main text of the companion volume).

The *QDE Theory *has a strong impact on developing a scientific philosophy capable of revolutionizing human culture towards a harmonious world.

It’s mainly a qualitative theory representing becoming, being and perishing. Therefore the *QDE Theory *establishes the basic feature of all conditioned phenomena described in Buddhist doctrines.

It shed light on biological evolution.

The quantitative component (e.g. the general theory of relativity and quantum field theory) and qualitative component (e.g. the arrow of time) are unified in *QDE Theory*.

The *QDE Theory *embodies the two major tenets (e.g. philosophy and science) of the world. As a result the philosophy has become more scientific and science has become more philosophic. Therefore in this scientific era now the time has ripen to give up non-scientific history of philosophy and its closely linked written works and expression of worships.

The *QDE Theory *being a qualitative theorypaves the way for an interdisciplinary link (e.g. philosophy, psychology, neurology, molecular biology and physics – see main text of the companion volume).

The *QDE Theory *being a qualitative theory provides the basis for the development of sculpture and art (e.g. Buddhist, Christian and Hindu Iconology).

Finally the *QDE Theory* helps us to gather experience and knowledge together with the power of applying them practically in order to reach the highest stage of enlightenment (see main text of the companion volume).

*End Note* –

Discussions made in the companion volume of this paper are mainly on philosophical context in favour of philosophical psychology of *Theravada *tradition in Sri Lanka in order to make the thesis available to a wide audience, e.g. to Buddhist scholars and research students of arts stream. Therefore though some of the explanations given in the companion volume look more philosophical in comparison with explanations of *QDE*

*Theory*, many of particle physics discussed on a scientific forum in this paper has been purposely omitted from the text of the thesis in order to follow a more accessible philosophical path in explaining phenomena of post canonical *Theravada Abhidhamma* texts. Therefore I being the author of this theory and the thesis strongly suggest the theoretical physicists and other scholars of scientific background to strictly adhere to the principles of *QDE Theory* discussed in this paperwhen following the chapters of the companion volume text. Others may follow the more comprehensible philosophical path of their choice when going through the thesis.

Sanathdeva Murutenge

**Bibliographical and Descriptive Notes**** – **

1. The Arrow of time (and its manifestations, the process of stability and change) represents both becoming,

being and perishing – Scoular Spencer C., *First Philosophy: the theory of everything, *Universal Publishers,

Florida, USA, 2007, p.377.

Kinetic theory of matter or statistical mechanics – Brownian motion – This helped to establish the study of

fluctuation phenomena as a new branch of physics – Einstein A., *Ideas and Opinions, *Souvenir Press Ltd.,

London, 2005, pp.219-220. Also see – Stachel John, Editor, *Einstein’s Miraculous Year: Five Papers That*

* Changed the Face of Physics, *Princeton University Press, 2005, pp.71-98.

Quoting Prof. Stephen Hawking in his book titled, *A Brief History of Time*, says that, ‘in a paper written in

1905, a few weeks before the famous paper on special relativity, Einstein pointed out that what was called

Brownian motion – the irregular, random motion of small particles of dust suspended in a liquid – could be

explained as the effect of atoms of the liquid colliding with the dust particles.’ – Hawking Stephen, *A Brief*

* History of Time, *Bantam Books, 10^{th} Anniversary Ed. 1998, p.66.

‘Einstein’s second paper of 1905 dealt with Brownian motion, the agitated dance performed by microscopic

particles suspended in fluids. Einstein did not set out to explain this phenomenon, but rather worked out on

theoretical grounds alone, how the particles ought to behave. The significance of this paper was that it conv-

-inced scientists that Brownian motion is caused by the motion of the molecules and that therefore molecules

must really exist’ – Ze’ev Rosenkranz, *Albert Through the Looking Glass: The Personal Papers of Albert*

* Einstein, *The Jewish National and University Library, Jerusalem, The Albert Einstein Archives, 1998, p.29.

Quoting Dr. Fritjof Capra in his book titled *The Tao of Physics*, he says that, ‘both the modern physicist and

the Eastern mystic have realized that all phenomena in this world of change and transformation are dynamic-

-ally interrelated. Hindus and Buddhists see this interrelation as a cosmic law, the law of karma, but they are

generally not concerned with any specific patterns in the universal network of events. Chinese philosophy on

the other hand, which also emphasizes movement and change, has developed the notion of dynamic patterns

which are continually formed and dissolved again in the cosmic flow of the Tao.’- Fritjof Capra, *The* *Tao of *

* Physics, *Shambhala Publications, Inc., Boston USA, 2000, p.278.

In *QDE Theory* cause forall the above explanations are taken as due to intrinsic degree of excellence of the

basic cosmic energy unit i.e. the Quaternion atomic model showing kinetic reversibility. See – Murutenge

Sanathdeva P.M., *Scientific Basis of the Systematic Philosophy of Buddhism: metaphysical and metapsycho-*

* -logical analysis of phenomena of molecular consciousness of Theravada Abhidhamma, *Author Publication,

Dehiwala, Sri Lanka, 2006.

2. Aristotle believed that all the matter in the universe was made up of four basic elements – earth, air, fire and

water. These elements were acted on by two forces: gravity, the tendency for earth and water to sink, and

levity, the tendency for air and fire to rise. This division of the contents of the universe into matter and forces

is still used today – Hawking Stephen, *The Brief History of Time, *Bantam Books, 10^{th} Anniversary Ed. 1998,

p.65.

But according to *QDE Theory *the particles (four basic elements) does not get involved in mathematical quan-

-tities at the outset.

3. New atomic model introduced in *QDE Theory* – See – Murutenge Sanathdeva P.M., *Scientific Basis of the *

* Systematic Philosophy of Buddhism: metaphysical and metapsychological analysis of phenomena of molec-*

* -ular consciousness of Theravada Abhidhamma, *Author Publication, Dehiwala, Sri Lanka, 2006, pp.116-147.

4. The first accelerators (these were built in the thirties) were quite small and could be accommodated in labora-

-tory rooms. As the energy to which particles were accelerated increased, the accelerator size also started

Increasing. Today, the largest machines are several kilometers long and so they are buried below the ground

since land for them is not available – Venkataraman G., *Why are things the way they are?, *Universities Press

(India) Limited, 1997, pp.1-10.

According to *QDE Theory *the whole universe is a universal accelerator. Therefore further expansion of part-

-icle research by way of collider type accelerators in isolation may lead to a chain of auto-collision taking

place with trillions of natures potential energy matrices joining them due to gravitational field effects resulting

massive kinetic nuclear explosion until it is brought to nature’s equilibrium of Quaternion kinetic reversibility

state. This type of nuclear explosion has the capacity of killing two third of human population in near future in

the planet called earth. I have shown in my *QDE Theory *that collision leads to matrix formation and matrix is

a potential energy state. An explosion of such a matrix evolved under nature’s gravitational field effect may

take an inconceivably long space of time, an aeon. The principles of *QDE Theory* explains the formations of

planets, stars and their compound formation, galaxies. Therefore it is the final theory of everything (TOE).

5. Quantum field theory explains the microscopic phenomena of the universe. But according to world famous

theoretical physicists the quantum mechanics are a poorly understood field to date. The quantum mechanics

is based on three broad principles (or postulates) viz. quantum state, quantum time revolution and quantum

measurement – Scoular Spencer C., *First Philosophy: the theory of everything, *Universal Publishers, Florida,

USA, 2007, pp.223-257.

Relativity theories – Ibid. pp.205-219.

Principles of quantum mechanics – 1. State vectors.

2. Observables.

3. Completeness. – See – Peebles P.J.E., *Quantum Mechanics, *Prentice

Hall of India Private Limited, New Delhi, 2003, pp.188-192.

Introduction to quantum field theory – Khanna M.P., *Introduction to Particle Physics, *Prentice-Hall of India

Private Limited, New Delhi, 2004, pp.24-27.

Quantum theory – measurements, observables and the uncertainty relations – Sakurai J.J., *Modern Quantum*

* Mechanics, *Addison Wesley, 2^{nd} Indian Reprint, 2000, pp.23-36.

6. Four dimensional continuum – Fritjof Capra, *The Tao of Physics, *Shambhala Publications, Inc., Boston,

USA, 2000, p.62.

Four dimensional continuum in which particle inter-actions can stretch in any direction – Ibid. p.185.

New Quaternion atomic model of *QDE Theory *fully explains this particle inter-action, four dimensional

continuum and how distortion of four dimensional continuum takes place.

The Lorentz Transformation – Events which happen at the same place at different times, as viewed from

one frame, may be seen from another frame to happen at different places as well. Similarly, a difference

in spatial position with respect to one frame may correspond to a difference in both space and time with

respect to another. Thus a space difference can be converted partly into a time difference, or vice versa,

merely by changing the frame of reference that is being used. For this reason it has become customary to

speak of space and time as aspects of a four-dimensional continuum known as space-time – Richtmyer F.K.,

Kennard E.H., Cooper J.N., *Introduction to Modern Physics, *6^{th} Ed., 12^{th} Reprint, 1992, Tata McGraw-

-Hill Publishing Co. Ltd., New Delhi, pp.57-59.

Also see – Rajam J.B., *Atomic Physics, *S. Chand & Company LTD., New Delhi, 2004, pp.404-407.

For further reading – see article of Minkowski H. on *space and time, *Einstein, Lorentz, Weyl, Minkowski,

*The Principle of Relativity, *Dover Publications, Inc., pp.73-96.

- 7. This definite pattern of particles is introduced for the first time in
*QDE Theory.*

8. Fritjof Capra, *The* *Tao of Physics, *Shambhala Publications, Inc., Boston, USA, 2000, p.248.

9. The present view on high energy particle collision among theoretical physicists does not support the

mechanism described in *QDE Theory.* What the physicists say is when two particles are made to collide

with high energies they generally break in to pieces, but these pieces are not smaller than the original

particles – Ibid., p.78.

The *QDE Theory *does not talk about particles breaking in to pieces in high energy collisions. What describes

In this theory is the matrix formation in high energy collisions.

Relativity theory tells us that mass is nothing but a form of energy – Energy can also be locked up in the

mass of an object – Ibid. 201. These two statements are true for *QDE Theory*. But in subsequent statements

Dr. Capra says that the amount of energy contained, for example in a particle is equal to the particle’s mass,

*m, *times *c*^{2}*, *the square of the speed of light; thus *E * = *mc*^{2}*. *Once it is seen to be a form of energy, mass is no

longer required to be indestructible, but can be transformed into other forms of energy. This can happen when

subatomic particles collide with one another. In such collisions, particles can be destroyed and the energy

contained in their masses can be transformed into kinetic energy, and distributed among the other particles

participating in the collision. Conversely, when particles collide with very high velocities, their kinetic energy can be used to form the masses of new particles – Ibid., p.201. The key sets of meaningful words of

Dr. Fritjof Capra clearly establishes the facts that, particle mass is equivalent to its energy, mass is indestructible, mass can be transformed in to other forms of energy, collision can cause destruction of particles, destroyed particle energy is transformed in to kinetic energy, conversely this kinetic energy is used to form masses of new particles. This is where Einstein went wrong at the beginning in his definitions of what is particle and what is mass and later lost his path in his attempt to develop a unified field theory in the Institute for Advanced Studies at Princeton, USA. Because of this wrong postulation, Einstein could not incorporate all the

four forces of the universe into a unified field theory in developing a theory of everything till his last breath. *QDE*

*Theory *supports the fact that, particle is a constituent of atom hence the name implies, subatomic and is indestructible. Mass destruction of an atom is closely linked to a process called kinetic reversibility. In high energy particle collision due to four collision points a square matrix is formed with a zero determinant hence it is called as a singular matrix with potential energy stored in each of four quadrants atomic structures. This is what describes in *QDE Theory *as Quaternion atomic model – For further details see – Murutenge Sanathdeva P.M., *Scientific Basis of the Systematic Philosophy of Buddhism, *Author Publication, 2006, Dehiwala, Sri Lanka, pp.116-147.

Collision of particles – see – Kompaneyets A.S., *Theoretical Physics, *Mockba, 1961, pp.48-57.

- 10. Murutenge Sanathdeva P.M.,
*Scientific Basis of the Systematic Philosophy of Buddhism,*Author Publication, 2006, Dehiwala, Sri Lanka. This thesis is available at SOAS Library in University of London, Princeton University, Harvard Divinity School of Harvard University, Yale University and Virginia University.

11. Ibid.

12. Vacuum is defined as the lowest energy state of a system. It has a zero momentum. In most quantum field theories, the vacuum is used only to enable mathematical construction of a Hilbert space. From the vacuum state we build the one-particle state, then the two-particle states and so on. Hopefully the resulting Hilbert space will eventually resemble our universe – Khanna M.P., *Introduction to Particle Physics,* 2004,Prentice-Hall of India Private Limited, New Delhi, p.32.

According to Dirac theory vacuum is a state in which all negative energy levels are occupied. In field theory vacuum signifies the ground state of the field in which there are no quanta. This explains the definition of a vacuum as a ground state – Kompaneyets A.S., *Theoretical Physics, *Mockba, 1961, pp.400-401.

Nature of the vacuum changes if definition is given quantum mechanically as the state of lowest energy of a scalar field *ф. *The change of vacuum releases energy which is dumped in to the system and causes the entropy to rise. During the changeover process, however, the energy momentum of the vacuum reacts back on the space-time geometry via the Einstein field equations – Fred Hoyle, Geoffrey Burbidge, Jayant V. Narlikar, *A Different Approach to Cosmology: From a Static Universe through the Big Bang towards Reality, *Cambridge University Press, 2000, UK, p.179.

The problem of vacuum energy and its relation to cosmological constant, one of the most outstanding challenges in modern theoretical physics, has been finally solved in this *QDE Theory* – See – Scoular Spencer C., *First Philosophy: the theory of everything, *Universal Publishers, Florida, USA, 2007, pp.344 – 347.

In Dirac’s relativistic wave mechanical theory suggests two novel processes viz. materialization of energy and annihilation of matter. Both these processes what happens is the transition of energy from negative to positive

and then from positive to negative. This process cannot take place in a vacuum because energy and momentum cannot be conserved – Rajan J.B., *Atomic Physics, *2004, S. Chand & Company LTD., New Delhi, pp.489-491. The above observations of Dirac’s theory agree with the statement given in *QDE Theory* as “higher intensity of total restraint force has no value here because in a vacuum state it does not produce any other effect”. A perfect vacuum is a region where all the states of positive energy are unoccupied and all those of negative energy are occupied – For Dirac’s relativistic theory see – Dirac P.A.M., *The Principles of Quantum Mechanics, *Oxford University Press, 4^{th} Ed., Reprint 1974, London, pp.253-275.

13. Symmetrical representation – Dirac P.A.M., *The Principles of Quantum Mechanics, *Oxford University Press, 4^{th} Ed., Reprint 1974, London, p.207.

For systems containing several similar particles – see – Ibid. pp.207-224.

For quark symmetries – see – Fritjof Capra, *The Tao of Physics, *Shambhala Publications, Inc., Boston, USA, 2000, pp.247-259.

Symmetries also see – Khanna M.P., *Quantum Mechanics, *2^{nd} Reprint 2000, Har-Anand Publications PVT LTD, pp.75-120.

14. Particles which are subject to the strong nuclear interactions are grouped as hadrons – Ghoshal S.N., *Nuclear Physics,* 2004,S. Chand & Company LTD., New Delhi, p.933.

For hadron mass and quark-quark interactions – see – Wong Samuel S.M., *Introductory Nuclear Physics, *2002, Prentice-Hall of India Private Limited, New Delhi, pp.60-63.

Interactions between particles – see – Richtmyer F.K., Kennard E.H., Cooper J.N., *Introduction to Modern Physics, *6^{th} Ed., 12^{th} Reprint 1992, Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company LTD, New Delhi, pp.270-272.

15. Hadron currents – see – Khanna M.P., *Introduction to Particle Physics, *2004, Prentice-Hall of India Private Limited, New Delhi, pp.146-195.

16. Radiation is now considered as particles of energy which propagate in absolute vacuum with a velocity that depends not on the physical properties of the medium but upon their own intrinsic nature i.e. upon their energy content which is however a function of the constant standard the velocity of light. This new conception of radiation is forced upon us not only by the theory of relativity, but also by the observed facts of black body radiation, photoelectric, Compton and Raman effects and their theoretical explanation by plank’s quantum theory of radiation – Rajam J.B., *Atomic Physics, *2004, S. Chand & Company LTD, New Delhi, p.396.

For quantum theory of radiation – see – Ibid. pp.415-463.

Also see – Theraja B.L., *Modern Physics, *2000, S. Chand & Company LTD, New Delhi, pp.119-120.

*QDE Theory* supports all the above and at the same time answers the puzzling question raised in the history of physics i.e. is radiation undulatory or corpuscular ?.

17. The angular momentum is given the symbol *L *and is defined as *L *= *mvr*. It is always perpendicular to the plane where the rotation take place – Greider Ken, *Invitation to Physics, *1973, Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Inc.,USA, pp.100-101.

18. According to relativity theory mass is nothing but a form of energy – Fritjof Capra, *The Tao of Physics, *2000, Shambhala Publications, Inc., Boston, USA, p.201. This was well established by Einstein in his paper published in 1905, ‘*Does the inertia of a Body depend upon its energy content?’ *– Einstein, Lorentz H.A., Weyl H., Minkowski H., *The Principle of Relativity, *Dover Publications, Inc., USA, pp.67-71. Also see – Stachel John, *Einstein’s Miraculous Year: Five Papers that changed the face of Physics, *Princeton University Press, 2005, pp.161-164.

19. Gravitational force.

20. Law of equivalence of mass and energy – Einstein A., *Ideas and Opinions, *Souvenier Press Ltd, London, 2005, pp.337-341.

21. Ibid.

22. So strictly speaking, neither the past, nor the present, nor the future exists for us. *Nothing exists! *And yet we are living, feeling, thinking and something surrounds us. Consequently, in our usual attitude toward time there exists some mistake. This error we shall endeavor to detect – We accepted at the very beginning that something exists. We called that something the world. How then can the world exists if it is not existing in the past, in the present and in the future? – That conception of the world which we deduced from our usual view of time makes the world appear like a continuously gushing out igneous fountain of fireworks, each spark of which flashes for a moment and disappears, never to appear any more. Flashes are going on continuously, following one after another, there are an infinite number of sparks, and everything together produces the impression of a flame, *though it does not exist in reality* – Ouspensky P.D., *Tertium Organum: The third canon of thought, A Key to the enigmas of the world, *1957, Routledge & Kegan Paul, London, p.34.

In the records of the Buddha’s teachings, he asserts that the passing of phenomena moment by moment does not occur as a result of the production of fresh causes and conditions acting on them from the outside. Rather, it is in the very nature of things that they arise and pass from one instant to the next. When explaining subtle impermanence, it is not simply that the first instant of something does not carry over into the second instant. Rather, the first instant does not remain unchanged even during its own time. Thus the very cause that brings something into existence creates it in the nature of impermanence, so that as soon as an effect arises the process of its disintegration has already begun. This means that the first instant of a phenomenon is in the process of being destroyed even while it is present, as the result of its very nature and not some outside influences causing it to be destroyed – Wallace B. Alan, *Buddhism and Science, *2004, Motilal Banarsidass Publishers, Private Limited, New Delhi, p.99.

Buddha establishes that there is nothing permanent, and if only the permanent deserved to be called the self or Atman, then nothing on earth is self. Everything is *anatta *or not-self. “All are impermanent, body, sensation, perception, Sankharas and consciousness, all these are sorrow. They are all not self.” – Radhakrishnan S., *Indian Philosophy, *volume one, 11^{th} Impression 2004, Oxford University Press, New Delhi, p.366.

A wonderful philosophy of dynamism was formulated by Buddha 2,500 years ago, a philosophy which is being recreated for us by the discoveries of modern science and the adventures of modern thought. The electro-magnetic theory of matter has brought about a revolution in the general concept of the nature of physical reality. It is no more static stuff but radient energy – Ibid. p.367.

23. Murutenge Sanathdeva P.M., *Scientific Basis of the Systematic Philosophy of Buddhism, *Author Publication, 2006, Dehiwala, Sri Lanka.

24. Derivation of kinetic energy equation – Greider Ken, *Invitation to Physics, *1973, Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Inc., USA, p.303.

25. Bibliographical and descriptive notes of No. 23.

26. Rajam J.B., *Atomic Physics, *S. Chand & Company LTD, New Delhi, 2004, pp.386-402.

Scoular Spencer C., *First Philosophy: the theory of everything, *Universal Publishers, Florida, USA, 2007, pp.205-211.

27. A rectangular array of numbers or elements the operation of which is governed by certain rules is called a matrix. It is different from a determinant. A determinant has a value but a matrix has no value. It has an algebraic entity – Awode Mahendra R., *Quantum Chemistry, *2002, S. Chand & Company LTD, New Delhi, p.18. Also see – Levine Ira N., *Quantum Chemistry, *2006, Prentice-Hall of India Private Limited, New Delhi, pp.198-201.

A matrix is the mathematician’s extension of the concept of a vector. A matrix needs four numbers to define it – Greider Ken, *Invitation to Physics, *1973, Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Inc., USA, p.271.

The quadratic relation between energy and momentum in Einstein’s relativity which Dirac noted is well explained in *QDE Theory*. Also what Dirac observed that the basic mathematical structure of quantum mechanics required that the energy of a particle has to be expressed in terms of the first power which was difficult to be interpret physically is overcomed in *QDE Theory* by introducing four dimensional space, a quantity called as *four-vector* or a *world vector*, a result turned out to be what mathematicians call a matrix – Ibid. pp.270-271.

Also see – Richtmyer F.K., Kennard E.H., Cooper J.N., *Introduction to Modern Physics, *6^{th} Ed. 12^{th} Reprint 1992, Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company LTD, New Delhi, pp.74-77.

Also see – Kakani S.L., Hemrajani C., *Mathematical Physics, *CBS Publishers, New Delhi, 2004, pp.134-271.

28. Determinant of a matrix refers only to a square matrix – Awode Mahendra R., *Quantum Chemistry, *2002, p.21. A determinant is a square array of *n** ^{2}*quantity – Levine Ira N.,

*Quantum Chemistry,*2006, pp.213-216.

29. Awode Mahendra R., *Quantum Chemistry,* 2002, pp.19-20. Levine Ira N., *Quantum Chemistry, *2006, pp.199-200.

30. Most of the times the matrices have the same number of rows and columns. Such matrices are called square matrices – Awode Mahendra R., *Quantum Chemistry, *2002, p.21.

A matrix with equal numbers of rows and columns is a square matrix. The order of a square matrix equals the number of rows – Levine Ira N., *Quantum Chemistry, *2006, p.199.

31. Bibliographical and descriptive notes of No. 23.

32. Only two matrices can be added together. For addition the matrices must be of the same order (*m *x *n*) – Awode Mahendra R., *Quantum Chemistry, *2002, pp.18-19.

Also see – Venkataraman G., *Quantum Revolution 1 The Breakthrough, *1997, Universities Press (India) Limited, p.86.

33. Ibid. p.19.

34. Human brain. For details see – Murutenge Sanathdeva P.M., *Scientific Basis of the Systematic Philosophy of Buddhism, *Author Publication, 2006, Dehiwala, Sri Lanka.

35. According to the *general theory of relativity*, at the center of a black hole is a singularity. As a result of this singularity, the physicists were unable to explain what really happens in the center of a black hole. Therefore the *general theory of relativity* remains as a self limiting theory to date. To over sort out this problem they have said that the singularity represents a spacetime point. But still the constituents of spacetime points have not been defined. Therefore still the problem is not solved – Scoular Spencer C., *First Philosophy: the theory of everything, *Universal Publishers, Florida, USA, 2007, p.358.

According to the theory of *First Philosophy: the theory of everything,* Dr Spencer Scoular, the pioneer of the theory has stated that ‘it is in principle not possible to know the structure of spacetime and energy’ – Ibid. p.180.

In *QDE Theory, *the self limiting character of the *general theory of relativity* and the *theory of first philosophy *is over comed by clearly defining what singularity is and what the constituents of a spacetime point are. According to *QDE Theory, *the Quaternion atomic model as one cosmic energy unit represents a spacetime point. Also the major two discoveries made in this century in the field of modern physics by formulation of this unified field theory called *QDE Theory* are the structure of energy and the structure of new Quaternion atomic model.

36. Black Hole – Jayant Vishnu Narlikar, *An Introduction to Cosmology, *3^{rd} Ed. 2002, Cambridge University Press, UK, pp.85-87.

Hawking Stephen, *A Brief History of Time, *Bantam Books, 10^{th} Anniversary Edition, 1998, pp.83-101.

Venkataraman G., *Vignettes in Physics-A Hot Story, *Universities Press (India) Limited, Reprint 1997, pp.129-130.

Also see – Scoular Spence C., *First Philosophy: the theory of everything, *Universal Publishers, Florida, USA, 2007, pp.357-360.

For counter arguments see – *Scientific American,Volume 291, Number 5, “Black Hole Computers”, *November 2004, pp.52-61.

37. Black Body Radiation – Black means that any light that enters the hole from outside is absorbed; any radiation coming out is emitted by the walls – Peebles P.J.E., *Quantum Mechanics, *Prentice-Hall of India Private Limited, New Delhi, 2003, pp.18-22.

In 1974 Stephen Hawking made the remarkable suggestion that a black hole can radiate – the quantum mechanical description of vacuum is much more involved than the classical description, which simply states that a vacuum is empty – according to quantum field theory, the vacuum is seething with virtual particles and antiparticles whose presence cannot be detected directly – Jayant Vishnu Narlikar, *An Introduction to Cosmology, *3^{rd} Ed. 2002, Cambridge University Press, UK, pp.227-230.

Richtmyer F.K., Kennard E.H., Cooper J.N., *Introduction to Modern Physics, *6^{th} Ed. 12^{th} Reprint, 1992, Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Limited, New Delhi, pp.117-146.

The *QDE Theory *explains all the above quantum discoveries and at the same time goes beyond the limitations of above theories.

38. Fundamental forces in nature – Scoular Spencer C., *First Philosophy: the theory of everything, *Universal Publishers, Florida, USA, 2007, p.261.

See Fundamental interactions in nature – Ghoshal S.N., *Nuclear Physics, *2004, S. Chand & Company LTD, New Delhi, pp.901-904.

Also see – Venkataraman G., *Vignettes in Physics: Bose and His Statistics, *1997, Universities Press (India) Limited, Hyderabad, pp.119-120.

39. Ibid. p.261, Ibid. pp.901-904.

40. Fritjof Capra, *The Tao of Physics, *Shambhala Publications, Inc., Boston, USA, 2000, p.230.

41. Space, Time and Gravitation – Jayant Vishnu Narlikar, *An Introduction to Cosmology, *3^{rd} Ed. 2002, Cambridge University Press, UK, pp.38-41.

42. Greider Ken, *Invitation to Physics, *1973, Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Inc., USA, pp.52-54.

43. Ibid. pp.79-80.

44. Ibid. p.78.

45. Jayant Vishnu Narlikar, *An Introduction to Cosmology, *3^{rd} Ed. 2002, Cambridge University Press, UK, pp.61-64.

Rajam J.B., *Atomic Physics, *S. Chand & Company LTD, New Delhi, 2004, pp.403-404.

Greider Ken, *Invitation to Physics, *1973, Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Inc., USA, pp.208-212.

46. Rajam J.B., *Atomic Physics, *S. Chand & Company LTD, New Delhi, 2004, pp.402-411.

Kompaneyets A.S., *Theoretical Physics, *Mockba, 1961, pp.209-210.

Richtmyer F.K., Kennard E.H., Cooper J.N., *Introduction to Modern Physics, *6^{th} Ed. 12^{th} Reprint, 1992, Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Limited, New Delhi, pp.90-92.

Scoular Spencer C., *First Philosophy: the theory of everything, *Universal Publishers, Florida, USA, 2007, pp.212-219.

Greider Ken, *Invitation to Physics, *1973, Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Inc., USA, pp.208-212.

Also see – Einstein A., *Ideas and Opinions, Relativity, the Special and the General Theory: A Popular Exposition, *Souvenir Press Ltd., London, 2005, pp.360-377.

Einstein A., Lorentz H.A., Minkowski H., *The Principle of Relativity – The Foundation of the General Theory of Relativity, *Dover Publications, Inc., New York, pp.108-164.

47. Euclidean Geometry – The usual geometry of space, the geometry that we learn at school and learn to apply in so many ways, is the geometry whose foundations were laid by the Greek mathematician Euclid *ca.* 300 BC. Euclidean geometry is a logical structure wherein theorems about triangles, parallelograms, circles and so on are proved on the basis of postulates that are taken as self-evident. The validity of these results appears to be borne out by measurements of length and angles in physical space – Jayant Vishnu Narlikar, *An Introduction to Cosmology, *3^{rd} Ed. 2002, Cambridge University Press, UK, p.39.

48. The four dimensional manifold which appears as a linking together of space and time is known as the four dimensional space-time continuum. Here the space and time considered as independent realities sink into the region of shadows; only their union can claim to possess an individual existence. A point in such a space time system is known as the *world point* and the motion of a particle in it may be represented by a *world line* – Rajam J.B., *Atomic Physics, *S. Chand & Company LTD, New Delhi, 2004, pp.404 – 407.

49. This is for the first time in the history of scientific development of modern physics that the *matter *has been defined by an acceptable scientific definition in a theory (*QDE Theory*). Earlier a French Physicist, Louis de Broglie put forward the bold suggestion that *matter *has a dual nature – Ibid. p.464 – 480.

50. Quantum theory of radiation – Rajam J.B., *Atomic Physics, *S. Chand & Company LTD, New Delhi, 2004, pp.429-463.

51. This is for the first time in the history of scientific development of modern physics that the constant velocity of all radiation is explained to the scientific community of theoretical physics in a theory (*QDE Theory*).

52. With the recognition of Quantum theory at the beginning of the present century, physicists were obliged to admit a dual nature, wave and particle, for radient energy – Rajam J.B., *Atomic Physics, *S. Chand & Company LTD, New Delhi, 2004, p.464.

53. Though it is not fully understood by the neurologists and neuroscientists, this explanation of *QDE Theory *is widely used as a diagnostic method in clinical neurology to study electrical activity of the brain. They tend to call this tracing an electroencephalogram (EEG). The new abbreviation according to the *QDE Theory *is explained in my thesis – See – Murutenge Sanathdeva P.M., *Scientific Basis of the Systematic Philosophy of Buddhism, *Author Publication, 2006, Dehiwala, Sri Lanka, pp.339-354.

54. The path which opens immediately before us in the future is that of applying the conception of four dimensional space to the phenomena of nature, and of investigating what can be found out by this new means of apprehension……See – Four dimensional space – Ouspensky P.D., *Tertium Organum: The third Canon of thought, A key to the enigmas of the world, *1957, Routledge & Kegan Paul, London, pp.18-27.

The *QDE Theory *has explained this new means of apprehension by way of theoretical physics so that it is now known to the community of modern physicsts of this century.

55. This is the smallest allowed circle. In the existing knowledge base of the subject matter a similar thing has been explained as the *Bohr Radius*. See – *The Bohr Theory* – Richtmyer F.K., Kennard E.H., Cooper J.N., *Introduction to Modern Physics, *6^{th} Ed. 12^{th} Reprint 1992, Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Limited, New Delhi, pp.233-238.

56. The current view of the existing knowledge is *electron wave *of the *quantum atom*.

57. This explains the unexplained physical phenomenon of radiation which was not solved to date i.e. the reason for constant velocity of all radiations.

58. In the existing knowledge base spatial quantization or quantization of direction is an essential element in *vector atomic model*. It is an extension of the Rutherford – Bohr – Sommerfeld atom model – Rajam J.B., *Atomic Physics, *S. Chand & Company LTD, New Delhi, 2004, p.625.

59. See quantum numbers associated with the vector model of the atom – Ibid. p.627.

60. Ibid.

61. Pauli’s exclusion principle – Ibid. pp.631-632.

Also see – Richtmyer F.K., Kennard E.H., Cooper J.N., *Introduction to modern Physics, *6^{th} Ed. 12^{th} Reprint, 1992, Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Limited, New Delhi, pp.381-385.

Dirac P.A.M.,* The Principles of Quantum Mechanics, *4^{th} Ed. Reprinted 1974, Oxford University Press, London, p.211.

62. Dr. Alan Wallace says in his thought provoking book,‘*The major alternatives we have today as definitions of the nature of consciousness are that it is a supernatural phenomenon that operates according to laws outside of those governing the physical world or that it is a natural phenomenon, an attribute or emergent property of physical process. In the late nineteenth century, following three centuries of extraordinary success in the quantitative, objective study of physical phenomena, scientists took on the daunting challenge of studying mental phenomena through experimental psychology. After thirty years of ineffectively utilizing introspection in the scientific study of the mind, twentieth-century academic psychology (particularly in the United States) abandoned any attempt to develop rigorous means of observing mental phenomena. Researchers reverted to the time-tested, objective, quantitative methods of the physical and life sciences for studying the behavioral expressions of mental process……….And anyone who insisted on affirming their own first-person experience of their thoughts, emotions, dreams and perceptions was condemned for clinging to ancient superstitions and magic’* – Wallace Alan B., *Hidden Dimensions: The Unification of Physics and Consciousness, *Columbia University Press, New York, 2007, pp.5-6.

According to late Dr. Francisco Varela, Evan Thompson and Eleanor Rosch, ‘*consciousness refers to sentience* *in general, the dualistic state we talked about as the fifth aggregate and it requires body and mind together. Moments of consciousness in a given situation can gravitate toward one or the other end of the psychophysical complex: perhaps the consciousness is primarily sensory; perhaps it is primarily mental’* – Francisco Varela, Evan Thompson, Eleanor Rosch, *The Embodied Mind: Cognitive Science and Human Experience, *The MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, London, England, 1993, p.113.

Also see – Roger Penrose, *Shadows of the Mind: A Search for the Missing Science of* *Consciousness, *Vintage, 2005.

Also see – Francisco Varela, Jonathan Shear, Editors, *The View From Within: First person approaches to the study of consciousness, *2^{nd} Reprint 2002, Imprint Academic, UK.

The above reflects the current state of the human consciousness studies in the west. Therefore it is quite evident to the reader of this research paper that the *QDE Theory *and its companion volume (*Scientific Basis of the Systematic Philosophy of Buddhism*) have contributed lot to the existing knowledge base of this field of study. The *QDE Theory *is the only theory of physics that has taken the human consciousness into account.

63. Elementary particles – Greider Ken, *Invitation to Physics, *1973, Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Inc., USA, pp.268-287.

Also see – Ghoshal S.N., *Nuclear Physics,* 2004,S. Chand & Company, New Delhi, pp.877-954.

64. Maxwell was the first to realize that the electric and magnetic fields could exist not only near charges but also in vacuum – Khanna M.P., *Introduction to Particle Physics, *3^{rd} Reprint, 2004, Prentice-Hall of India Private Limited, New Delhi, p.25.

65. Quantum Chromodynamics is a theory in which hadrons are assumed to be composite particles, their constituents being quarks. The theory was developed by H. Fritzch and M. Gell-Mann in 1972 – Ibid. pp.234-236.

66. Photoelectric Effect – In 1900, the German physicist Max Plank had proposed that heat and light radiated from hot objects are emitted or absorbed in discrete chunks of energy he called “quanta”. In his paper of 1905, Einstein adopted Planck’s theory enthusiastically and used it to explain the photoelectric effect. This effect occurs when a light beam hits a metallic target and causes it to emit electrons. Einstein postulated that a light beam really does consist of a stream of quanta (photons), and thus gave the light quantum a physical reality. For this explanation and not for the theory of relativity, Einstein received the *Nobel Prize *for *Physics* – Ze’ev Rosenkranz, *Albert Through the Looking Glass: The Personal Papers of Albert Einstein, *1998, The Jewish National and University Library, Jerusalem, The Albert Einstein Archives, p.29.

67. Quantum Electrodynamics is a theory formulated in the late twenties/early thirties that seemed satisfactory and adequate, but only at first sight. Bur a closer look revealed problems which were fixed independently by Schwinger, Feynman and Tomonaga in the forties. Incidentally, this sort of thing goes on all the time in physics, most successful theories do a good job for a while and then run in to problems, whereupon a new theory takes over. Sometimes the new theory is just a modification but at other times it is totally a new. This is the official name for quantum field theory which allows a combined description of electrons, positrons and photons. With this theory they have describe Compton scattering, Raman scattering, emission of light from atoms, absorption of light by atoms – in fact all phenomena which involve light and atoms – Venkataraman G., *Vignettes in Physics, Bose and His Statistics, *1997, Universities Press (India) Limited, Hyderabad, 103-104.

Quantum Electrodynamics, which deals with the interaction of a pair of quantum fields, viz. the electron and the electromagnetic field, in a manner consistent with the special theory of relativity, was framed immediately after the birth of quantum mechanics. But the mathematical treatment always gave rise to certain infinite quantities which could not be readily interpreted. In 1947, the theoretical physicists, F.J. Dyson, R.F.Feynman, J. Schwinger and S.I. Tomonoga developed the so-called “*theory of renormalization*” which effectively solved the difficulty of these infinities by showing that the quantities which used to turn out infinite should be interpreted as a change of the mass and charge of the particle: the renormalization procedure gave also a particle of selecting between possible and impossible expressions for fields and their interactions – Rajam J.B., *Atomic Physics, *S. Chand & Company LTD, New Delhi, 2004, pp.1235-1236.

68. Aristotle believed that all the matter in the universe was made up of four basic elements – earth, air, fire and water. These elements were acted on by two forces: gravity, the tendency for earth and water to sink, and levity, the tendency for air and fire to rise. This division of the contents of the universe into matter and forces is still used today – Hawking Stephen, *A Brief History of Time, *Bantam Books, 10^{th} Anniversary Ed. 1998, p.65.

69. Condensation – Einstein made this very important discovery now known as *Bose condensation.* The dramatic increase in the occupancy of the lowest momentum state at lowest temperature is referred to as *Bose condensation *– Venkataraman G., *Vignettes in Physics, Bose and His Statistics, *1997, Universities Press (India) Limited, Hyderabad, pp.105-114.

70. Antimatter – Dirac discovered this. Earlier it was believed that the whole universe was built up out of only three basic units: the protone, the electron and the light quantum – Heisenberg Werner, *Physics and Beyond: Encounters and Conversations, *Harper & Row Publishers, 1^{st} Ed. New York, Evanston and London, p.163.

The discovery of the positron in 1933 confirmed Dirac’s theory and led to his being awarded the *Nobel Prize* for *Physics* in 1933. We now no that every particle has an antiparticle, with which it can annihilate – Hawking Stephen, *A Brief History of Time, *Bantam Books, 10^{th} Anniversary Ed. 1998, pp.70-71.

71. A new systematic naming introduced for the first time in *QDE Theory* for elementary particles.

72. A new systematic naming introduced for the first time in *QDE Theory *for antiparticles.

73. Soul magnetic particles (SM-Particles) and Soul magnetic charges (SM- Charges) – New abbreviations introduced in *QDE Theory*.

74. For parallel explanations on the subject of *spin and statistics *– see – Venkataraman G., *Vignettes in Physics, Bose and His Statistics, *1997, Universities Press (India) Limited, Hyderabad, pp.72-92.

75. Binary Systems of Networks – See – Fritjof Capra, *The Web of Life: A New Scientific Understanding of Living Systems, *1997, Anchor Books, A Division of Random House, Inc., New York, pp.199-203.

76. Variables and Functions – See – Murray R. Spiegel, *Theory and Problems of Complex Variables, *1981, McGraw-Hill Book Co., Singapore, pp.33-37.

77. Frank Ayres JR., *Theory and Problems of* *Differential Equations,* 1981, McGraw-Hill Book Co., Singapore.

78. Murray R. Spiegel, *Theory and Problems of Complex Variables, *1981, McGraw-Hill Book Co., Singapore, p.144.

79. Ibid. pp.139-171.

80. Ibid. pp.143-144.

81. Ibid. p.238.

Also see – Scoular Spencer C., *First Philosophy: the theory of everything, *Universal Publishers, Florida, USA, 2007, p.199.

82. Murray R. Spiegel, *Theory and Problems of Complex Variables, *1981, McGraw-Hill Book Co., Singapore, p.143.

Also see – Taylor’s expansion method – Gupta B.D., *Mathematical Methods with Special Functions, *1992, Konark Publishers PVT LTD, Delhi, pp.659-660.

83. To date “*String Theory*” is considered to be the most accepted theory of everything – See – Polchinski Joseph, *String Theory, Volume 1, *Cambridge University Press, New York, USA, 2007.

Also see – *String Theory,* *Volume 11, *Cambridge University Press, New York, USA, 2007.

But *string theory *has many problems and is discredited by a number of leading physicists and commentators. What is desperately needed is a new approach – Scoular Spencer C., *First Philosophy: the theory of everything, *Universal Publishers, Florida, USA, 2007, pp.61-77.

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